Thursday, October 31, 2019

Scholarship Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Scholarship Essay Example To make matters worse, soon after my divorce, I had to move back in with my parents only to have to face a family tragedy. My parents died within 18 months of each other soon after. They left behind a sizable debt which I now have to contend with paying. All of these amount to me coming to my wits end. How will it be possible for me to continue with my life and honor my financial obligations if I do not have the kind of job that will allow me the kind of income to do so? After much soul searching, I finally found the answer. I decided to quit my job of nine years in order to save what I could of the little money that my parents left me to spend on pursuing the completion of my Business Administration degree. I felt like I had no choice but to resign from my job because it was not really serving its full purpose as a significant source of income for my family needs and financial obligations now that my parents were no longer around to help me out financially. Some people may say I am stupid for leaving a job that was paying me, even if it was only a pittance. But then again, holding on to that job was preventing me from retraining myself in order to achieve a higher goal. My full concentration is now set on completing my college degree and eventually pursuing an MBA. However, my finances are still quite strapped, which is why I have come to the Neal, Thomas James, and Lynnie Rice Neal Scholarship foundation for help. With a GPA of 3.75, I realize that I will be in a cut-throat competition with the other applicants. But the foundation will not be sorry if the scholarship is awarded to me. I know the value of a good education because I am the only member of my family to ever attend college. And I fully intend to use every opportunity that I can in order to achieve the greatness in life that I know I was meant for. All I am asking for, is a helping hand. I am hoping that your foundation will be one to give me the leg up that I need to get

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Risk Management in Brewin Dolphin Holdings plc Essay

Risk Management in Brewin Dolphin Holdings plc - Essay Example According to the essay findings a  major chunk of its customers and their families have been with BDHP for generations together and this being a testimony for the high-quality services they offer. BDHP is having a unique business model which helps it to earn the confidence of its clients, and thereby it is able to establish long-run and loyal customer relationships. With the help of expertise of its professionally qualified advising staff, BDHP is able to make a personal approach in their client service. BDHP is having about 35 offices in UK, and its employee strength is around 1877 employees as of 31st December 2013. On behalf of its clients, BDHP is managing about  £28.2 billion of investments annually as of date. The market capitalisation of BDHP is  £728.94m and its net income in 2013 was  £33.59m and it is being one of the leading businesses in financial industry of UK.This study highlights that  BDHP is able to maintain the vibrant client relationships with a long-run past performance of personalised services to its customers. BDHP visualises that it has a very good potential growth market with long-run future prospects. BDHP has reorganised its management team with infusion of clear aims and a strategy to accomplish them. BDHP main focus and strategy is that it will usher higher value for all of its stakeholders. BDHP is one of the largest personalised investment service providers in the UK, and they are in the management of portfolios on a discretionary and advisory basis.     

Sunday, October 27, 2019

The Corruption Within Government Politics Essay

The Corruption Within Government Politics Essay It is essential to note from the outset that there is no single, comprehensive and universally accepted definition of corruption. It would be a long and awkward process to come up with a universally shared definition. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in the Global Programme against Corruption -UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit- briefly states that the difficulties encounter in formulating a common definition are due to legal, criminological and political problems [1]. When the negotiations of the United Nations Convention against Corruption began in early 2002, one option under consideration was not to define corruption at all but to list specific types or acts of corruption. However, The World Bank and World Customs Organization (WCO) simply define corruption as the misuse of public power for private benefit [2], the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in its Anti-Corruption Practice Note, corruption is defined as the misuse of public power, office or authority for private benefit through bribery, extortion, influence peddling, nepotism, fraud, speed money or embezzlement [3]. Law-Dictionary ( defines corruption as an act done with intent to give some advantage inconsistent with official duty and the rights of others. It includes bribery, but is more comprehensive; because an act may be corruptly done, though the advantage to be derived from it is not offered by another, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary: dishonest or illegal behavior, especially of people in authority [4] and Nye [5] defines corruption as behavior which deviates from the formal duties of a public role because of private-regarding (personal, close family, private clique) pecuniary or status gains; or violates rules against the exercise of certain types of private-regarding influence. In general, corruption is a complex social, political and economic phenomenon. Nowadays corruption is internationally recognized as a major problem in society, one capable of endangering the stability and security of societies, threatening social, economic and political development and undermining the values of democracy and morality. This holds true at both the domestic level and the international level. Indeed, with the growing globalization of markets of services, goods and people, accompanied by the internationalization of illegal activities, the international dimension of corruption gains in significance. As a result, reducing corruption becomes a priority at both the national and international levels; governmental and non-governmental organizations and requires concerted efforts, exchange of experience and a certain degree of standardization. Although it is true that countries differ in their anticorruption strategies, it is nowadays increasingly possible to cooperate and exchange information on successful practices. Also an international non-governmental organization such as Transparency International (TI) also developed as an international non-governmental organization fighting corruption and trying to raise public awareness of it. This includes, but is not limited to, political corruption. It publishes every year its Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), a comparative listing of corruption worldwide. The international headquarters is located in Berlin, Germany. The founder of the organization is Peter Eigen [6]. World map of the 2007 Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) by Transparency International (TI), which measuresthe degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians to exist among public officials and politicians. High numbers which are in green indicates low perception of corruption, while the color red point out the higher perception of corruption. As a conclusion more than 70% of the world has corruption but it differs from country to another in the level of the corruption.[16] Types and Forms of corruption The main forms of corruption are bribery, embezzlement, fraud and extortion. However, these forms can partly overlap and at times interchangeable with each other. Bribery is the payment (in money or kind) that is given or taken in a corrupt relationship. To pay or receive a bribe is corruption and should be understood as the essence of corruption. A bribe is a fixed sum, a certain percentage of a contract, or any other favor in money of kind, usually paid to an official who can make contracts on behalf of the government or otherwise distribute benefits to companies or individuals, businessmen and clients. There are many equivalent terms to bribery, like gratuities and baksheesh, which are all notions of corruption as perceived from the public. These are payments needed or demanded to make things pass swifter, smoother or more favorably through the government bureaucracy. Bribery can buy for instance political favors and escape the full burden of taxation and other regulations, or buy protected markets and monopolies, import/export licenses, etc. and can also be a form of informal taxation, when public officials charge additional under-the-tabl e payments or expect gifts from clients. Embezzlement is theft of public resources by public officials. Embezzlement is when a government official steals from the public institution in which he his employed, and from resources he is supposed to administer on behalf of the government and the public. However, disloyal employees in private firms can also embezzle money and other resources from their employers. Graft graft large gifts qualifies as graft, and most countries have laws against it. Example of graft is a politician using his knowledge of position to purchase land which he knows is planned for development, before this is publicly known, and then selling it at a significant profit. In Egypt some members of the parliament have their own ways under the table to purchase lands for their own benefits. Trading in influence or influence marketing in certain countries, refers to the situation where a person is selling his/her influence over the decision process involving a third party (person or institution). In Egypt, trading influence take place in importing and exporting goods, where the Role of the third party can be a partner in some instances Fraud is an economic crime that involves some kind of dishonesty, cheat or deceit. It is a broader legal and popular term that covers more than bribery and embezzlement. It is fraud for instance when governmental representatives are engaged in illegal trade networks, counterfeit and racketing, and when forgery, smuggling and other organized economic crime is propped up by official sanction and involvement. It is fraud when top officials take a share for closing their eyes on this; it is serious fraud when they have an active role in it. Extortion is money and other resources extracted by the use of force, violence or the threats to use force in an atmosphere of insecurity. Protection or security money can be extorted in the classical, infamous mafia style. Nepotism and cronyism Nepotism (personal relatives) has to do with favoritism of relatives and close circle in posts and advantages, while cronyism (personal friends) is demanding that a business should employ a friend of an official controlling regulations affecting the business. Also this can combine with bribe. Egypt can be example for this, by employing un qualified candidates ,just for favoring relatives or personal friends which affect business leading to huge corruption. Kickback kickback (manipulative corruption) is an officials share of misappropriated funds allocated from his or her organization to an organization involved in corrupt bidding. Giving a contract to a company, not efficient, in this case the officials receive a kickback payment, which is the part of the sum of money receive. [7] Analysis of Corruption Levels in Egypt: The analysis covers the individual, business and political corruption levels and the frequency in the different sectors where corruption can be encountered. Sectors describe which kind of corruption including bribes and facilitation payments can be encountered in different areas of Judicial System, Police, Licenses, transportation and Public Utilities, Land Administration, Tax Administration, Customs Administration, Public Procurement and Contracting and Environment, Natural Resources and Extractive Industry. All information is based on publicly available information and should be viewed as general guidelines on the types of corruption existing in Egypt. Levels of corruption in the different sectors indicate where corruption can be encountered. The levels are defined as follows: Individual Corruption: Corruption that takes place primarily in relations between individual citizens and public officials and authorities. Business Corruption: Corruption that takes place primarily in relations between enterprises/companies and public officials and authorities. Political Corruption: Corruption that takes place in the higher echelons of public administration and on a political level. Frequency refers to quantitative surveys on corruption in the respective sectors. 1. Judicial System Individual Corruption The constitution specifies equal access to the justice system regardless of ethnic or racial origin. The judicial system usually functions well, although incidents of corruption have been reported. There are cases where judges have accepted bribes from defendants in exchange for lenient sentences or discharge. Moreover, according to Global Integrity 2008 [8], bribery, favoritism and informal relationships affect the implementation of judicial decisions. Business Corruption The government is reportedly planning to establish special economic courts to rapidly settle commercial dispute. Currently, however, companies wishing to enforce commercial contracts or seeking to resolve dispute face a costly and time-consuming process. Indeed, both the average cost and the time required to resolve a dispute are higher than in other countries in the region. According to the Heritage Foundation 2009 [9], it takes an average of 6 years to decide commercial cases and appealing procedures can extend the cases above 15 years. On the other hand, the Heritage Foundation 2009 reports that local contractual arrangements are mostly secure. Political Corruption According to Global Integrity 2008 [8], the Military Court, the Supreme State Security Court and the Political Parties Court are not judicially reviewed. Reportedly, the President uses the military courts, in particular, for political purposes. In April 2008, the military courts tried and convicted 25 civilians, all leading members of the opposition the Muslim Brotherhood. The independence of judges is guaranteed by the constitution, but this has generally not been respected by the government, especially in politically charged cases. However, although the executive tries to influence the judiciary, the higher echelons of this sector have occasionally ruled against the government. And in spring 2006, nearly 7,000 out of Egypts 9,000 judges conducted a sit-in, advocating for independence and judicial reform. On lower levels, the executive has much power over the judiciary because of the low salaries and selective bonuses. The absence of lifetime tenure and other institutional guarantees of independence is a major problem. Frequency The World Bank IFC: Doing Business 2009 [10]: Enforcing commercial contracts requires 42 procedures, taking an average of 1,010 days and costing 26% of the claim. 2. Police Individual Corruption The US Department of State 2008 reports [11] that petty corruption in the police force is pervasive, especially below senior levels. The police force is known to demand bribes and to violently abuse prisoners and detainees. The government has prosecuted some of the police officers involved in corruption and abuse. Business Corruption According to the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009 [12] stated Egypt holds a competitive disadvantage concerning the reliability of its police services in protecting companies from crime. However, companies should note that the department within the police that handle implementing judicial decisions is used to accepting bribes to work partially on a case. According to the Kefaya Movement 2006, companies are often forced by the police to hire guard services at very expensive rates. Political Corruption According to Global Integrity 2008 [8], the police are subject to political interference. The police force is accused of being an instrument of the government to suppress political opponent and ordinary citizens. Impunity of the police is a persistent problem. Indeed, Global Integrity 2008 reports that officers found guilty of corruption rapidly receive an administrative sentence issued by the disciplinary military council within the Ministry of Interior, which never exceeds suspension for 6 months. The council does not convert these violations and crimes to courts. In cases when legal suits against law enforcement officials appear in front of courts, the council rushes to pass a weak administrative ruling to preclude the sentence that would be passed by the ordinary court involving imprisonment and removal. Because a person cannot be judged for twice for same crime, the corrupt officers receive the lowest sentence, i.e. an administrative sentence. Allegations have been made by the Kefaya Movement 2006 that the Minister of Interior took advantage of his position to illegally amass wealth. He allegedly purchased shops from detainees and even seized some of the detainees properties. Moreover, high-ranking police officials are accused of receiving money from drug traffickers. 3. Licenses, Infrastructure and Public Utilities Individual Corruption The law allows all citizens to apply for business licenses. However, citizens face many cumbersome bureaucratic procedures and obtaining a business license is costly. Business Corruption Companies should note that the Ministry of State for Administrative Development specifically noted public utilities as an area that was particularly disfigured by corruption. Despite Egypt having improved its performance in relation to obtaining of licenses and permits, obtaining utility connections and the completion of required notifications and examination, it still lags behind other countries in the region. Companies should note that facilitation payments are often required when dealing with licenses. Political Corruption Investigations into the ferry accident in the Red Sea in February 2006, which involved more than 1,000 deaths, concluded that the key factors in causing the accident were incompetence by the authorities and neglect by the ship owner. The owner of the ship was also a member of the Upper House appointed by President Mubarak, and this has led to speculations of collusion and corruption. Investigations into the Nasr City incident (the collapse of an 11 story building in 2004 that had been illegally modified) confirmed that fining lawbreakers has become an important source of revenue for both public and central government alike. This has given rise to speculation of whether the government is selling fines so that citizens can pay to break the law and ignore licensing requirements. Frequency The World Bank IFC: Doing Business 2009 [10]. To construct a warehouse, a company is required to go through 28 procedures, taking 249 days and costing nearly 377% of the income per capital. The World Bank IFC: Enterprise Surveys 2007 [13] 7.3% of a companys annual sales are used as gifts or informal payments to public officials in order to get things done. 13.7% of companies expect to give gifts to obtain an operating license. 4. Land Administration Business Corruption Egypt has moved up 18 places in the World Bank IFC Doing Business 2009 [10] with regards to registering property compared to 2007-2008. The cost involved in registering property is very low, both in comparison with the MENA region and OECD averages. On the other hand, registering property is very time-consuming in Egypt, taking almost twice as long as the regional average.  In this regard, companies should note that a awkward bureaucracy often gives rise to demands for so-called speed payments. Frequency The World Bank IFC: Doing Business 2009 [10]: Registering property takes 7 procedures, can last an average of 72 days and amounts to 1% of the property value. 5. Tax Administration Business Corruption According to the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009 [12], tax regulations and tax rates constitute significantly problematic factors for doing business in Egypt. The number of payments and the time spent on preparing, filing and paying taxes constitute a load for the companies. Tax administration was mentioned by the Ministry of State for Administrative Development as one of the areas that are particularly tainted with corrupt practices. According to Global Integrity 2008 [8], tax laws are not always enforced uniformly and without discrimination. It is further reported that, while public employees have taxes deducted from their pay, the government will award special treatment to wealthy businesspeople, allowing significant levels of tax avoidance to go unpunished. Frequency The World Bank IFC: Doing Business 2009 [10]: A medium-sized company must make 29 payments and spend 711 hours per year managing the administrative burden related to paying taxes at a total tax rate of 46% of profits. The World Bank IFC: Enterprise Surveys 2007 [13]: 14% of companies expect to give gifts when meeting with tax inspectors, which is a distinguished decreased compared to 2004. 35% of companies claim that tax administration is a major restriction. 6. Customs Administration Individual Corruption Employees of the Suez Canal customs administration and those working in the associations related to the Suez Canal have a reputation for engaging in corruption. They routinely extort money, and illegally take away cigarettes and wine from each ferry that crosses the Suez Canal. Business Corruption Companies should know that corruption is not uncommon in relation to customs administration. According to Global Integrity 2008 [8], customs and excise laws are not always enforced uniformly and without discrimination. Large companies are reportedly unofficially excused from paying customs duties. Low-level officials in customs zones are known to demand bribes to speed up paperwork for licenses, clearances and other permits required to do business. Frequency The World Bank IFC: Doing Business 2009 [10]: A standard export shipment of goods requires 6 documents and takes an average of 14 days at a cost of USD 737 per container. A standard import shipment of goods requires 6 documents and takes and average of 15 days at a cost of USD 823 per container. The World Bank IFC: Enterprise Surveys 2007 [13]: More than 10% of companies expect to give gifts in order to obtain an import license. 7. Public Procurement and Contracting Business Corruption public procurement in Egypt has been stained by corrupt practices. A corruption scandal involving the Irrigation Ministry revealed that officials within the ministry are demanding bribes to award irrigation construction project contracts. In the housing sector, bribery is common in relation the awarding of contracts and the granting of demolition and building licenses. Several corruption scandals have been revealed within this sector, including international cases where Egyptian contractors have been charged with committing corrupt acts abroad. Companies are recommended to use a specialized public procurement due industry tool [14] in order to help improving corruption risks associated with public procurement in Egypt. Political Corruption It is reported that some tenders are given to companies formed by top officials of the Ministry of Interior and the Intelligence Service at inflated prices. Frequency The World Bank IFC: Enterprise Surveys 2007 [13]: 92% of companies assess that other similar companies are either giving gifts or informal payments to win a government contract. The average value of a gift in order to secure a government contract is almost 10% of the contract value. 8. Environment, Natural Resources and Extractive Industry Business Corruption Officials in the Ministry of  Agriculture receive very low salaries, though they are supervising projects estimated to be worth billions of EGP. Bribery and other corrupt practices (falsifying documents, etc.) are extremely common in this sector. Political Corruption The Ministry of Agriculture has had more than 10 high-profile corruption scandals over the last 5 years, which is the highest rate of any ministry or sector in Egypt. Since 1995 Transparency International has published each year the CPI, ranking countries on a scale from 0 (perceived to be highly corrupt) to 10 (perceived to have low levels of corruption). The CPI as a measurement of corruption has played a critical role in branding the issue of corruption on the worlds conscience. It sends a powerful message and national governments have been forced to take notice and act. However, the CPI results of the 2009 edition, Egypt is categorized as follows Rank = 111 of 180 countries CPI 2009 Score = 2.8 Surveys Used = 6 Confidence Range = 2.6 3.1 Source: Transparency International, [15]. Examples of corruption in Egypt: The administrative corruption can be seen in the following fields that would be tackled in detail later: The political corruption through fake elections that takes place in Egyptian parliament, supporting emergency law and abusing human rights on the different levels. The economic corruption through favoritism that enable special advances in projects or having facilities of some of those close to the regime. Like having privatization of owning lands with illegal documents. The agriculture sector: it was corrupted on various fields starting from the spoiled herbicides, the materials that cause cancer and the destruction of a number of the important commodities in the Egyptian economy. As also the Black cloud it has been formed over Cairo for couples of years as a result of farmers burning their rice fields that effect with a hovered smoke, which has caused polluting the air and clogging the throats of residents. And this affects the quality of air and peoples health by the carbon monoxide, as Over 2 million tons of straw are burned with they choose the easiest way to get rid of the straw and preparing for the winter planting season, although the government forbid this; still farmers burn and this takes place at night as government doesnt follow up. However corruption takes place with bakers who gets government subsidized flour and sell it in black market with an enormous profit. As also bread crisis takes place with Egyptian citizens who have to wait in long lines at subsidize bakeries. Corruption in transport and communication. For example, train accidents, which result from inefficiency of controlling and supervision of ministry. Corruption in Housing: contractions and the privatization of lands, flats of the new cities, roads, bridges and the main infrastructure. For example, massive rock in Mokatam(El Doweka); that results from digging by the government knowing its danger on citizens living there. Commissions paid for protection and the means of its transport. The sector of communication, mobile phones and fixed one, an example, recording calls of people to trace them illegally and selling secret data of consumers for gaining money. Corruption in the Interior Ministry starting from joining Police Academy, the security letter at the appointment of the average individuals, torture and even killing in the police stations. A number of the security leaders are involved in cooperating and facilitate a number of the outlawed actions Prostitution networks which are sometimes related to the state officials and its systems. Corruption in judicial authority: this is an important and unique aspect. It is found in our dear country. The way in which the US aid is distributed among individual organization and sometimes they steal it for their own benefits. 12- Press, media, its associations and the lack of the Egyptian medial leadership, the national press publish what they want and hide the truth from Egyptians while in contrast of the yellow press show all the governmental secrets. The so-called loyalty raise, which is given secretly, violating the legal financial rules, rules of the senior police and army commanders. corruption in the ministry of culture , ,the Beni Sweif Theater Fire, that take place in 5th September 2005 the minister Farouk Hosney described it as an accident, also the fire that was held in the Egyptian parliament hall destroyed everything inside the hall as well it was identified as an accident but it wasnt. And the government failed to protect the national landmark. Effects of corruption: In Egypt, corruption has disadvantaged national, social, economic and political progress. Public resources are allocated inefficiently, competent and honest citizens feel frustrated, and the general populations level of distrust rises. As a consequence, productivity is lower, administrative efficiency is reduced and the legitimacy of political and economic order is undermined. Consequently; foreign aid disappears, projects are left incomplete, and in the end donors lose enthusiasm. Corruption in Egypt also harms economic development by transferring large sums of money in accurately the opposite direction to what is needed. Funds intended for aid and investment instead flow quickly back to the accounts of corrupt officials, which tend to be in banks in stable and developed countries, beyond the reach of official seizure and the random effects of the economic chaos generated by corruption at home. The reverse flow of capital leads in turn to political and economic instability, poor inf rastructure, education, health and other services, and a general tendency to create or perpetuate low standards of living. Recommendations: Recommendations for regular corruption monitoring program must be used periodically to monitor trends in corruption and to evaluate the effectiveness of the anti-corruption measures adopted and implemented at the national level. However, international experts may also be requested to evaluate and monitor for international transparency. In addition anti-corruption program must be occupied with ethical behavior that can lead to a proper government, there are several point must be fulfilled for a better government. First, The importance of supporting decentralization in governorates and seeking to overcome the weak relationship between local administrations and citizens, which leads to have irresponsive citizens towards reform and modernization in Egypt Second the importance of following up officials and investigation and reporting on them ethically to prevent Anti-corruption. Third, releasing the right information circulation and the citizen has the right to know about corruption cases and providing the citizen full protection. Finally, there must be supervision upon profits and some funds, as the donations which are provided must be directed to the right places on the control of the government, as well as supporting the development of risk management and risk appetite.

Friday, October 25, 2019

8th Fire: Indigenous in the City Analysis: One Step Forward, One Step B

8th Fire: Indigenous in the City, is part of a documentary series that describes the challenges that aboriginal people face when moving to the large cities from reservations. The documentary begins by describing the stereotypes that English Canadians as well as other visible minority groups perceive aboriginal people to be. They show how damaging the stereotypes are to the First Nations, especially in the area of education. The documentary concludes by offering a few some solutions of how to change and improve the relationship between the aboriginal community and the rest of Canada. The two main aspects of the film that I will focus my analysis on is the education system from past to present and the negative impacts it has had on the First Nation’s people as well as aboriginal stereotyping. These two themes were the most prominent topics brought up throughout the film, and while one topic was well argued and framed, the other I will argue was more damaging than educationa l. I should mention that due to my ethnicity being of aboriginal decent, Mà ©tis in particular, I was extremely critical of the film because though these issues need to be addressed publicly, if they are presented in the wrong light, it can cause more negative implications than positives. Though the film mentioned the impact that residential schools had and still has on the aboriginal people, I felt that this issue needed to be stressed further because the legacy of the schools is still extremely prominent in aboriginal communities today. The film refers to the fact that residential schools harmed the aboriginal people because they were not able to learn their culture, which has resulted in the formation of internalized oppression within in the group. â€Å"The... ...t Kids Docs Radio TV. Web. 1 Apr. 2012. . Fleras, Augie. â€Å"Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: Repairing the Relationship.† Chapter 7 of Unequal Relations: An Introduction to Race, Ethnic and Aboriginal Dynamics in Canada. 6th ed. Toronto: Pearson, 2010. 162-210. Print. King, Thomas. â€Å"Let Me Entertain You. The Truth About Stories: A Native Narrative. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005. 61-89. Print. Ruth, Seà ¡n. â€Å"Theories of Internalized Oppression.† Leadership and Liberation: A Psychological Approach. London: Routledge, 2006. 155-173. Print. Schissel, Bernard, and Terry Wotherspoon. â€Å"The Legacy of Residential Schools.† Inequality in Canada: A Reader on the Intersections of Gender, Race, and Class. 2nd ed. Ed. Valerie Zawilski. Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 2010. 102-121. Print.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Variable Cost and Contribution Margin

CHAPTER 12 PRICING DECISIONS AND COST MANAGEMENT 12-1The three major influences on pricing decisions are 1. Customers 2. Competitors 3. Costs 12-2Not necessarily. For a one-time-only special order, the relevant costs are only those costs that will change as a result of accepting the order. In this case, full product costs will rarely be relevant. It is more likely that full product costs will be relevant costs for long-run pricing decisions. 12-3Two examples of pricing decisions with a short-run focus: 1. Pricing for a one-time-only special order with no long-term implications. . Adjusting product mix and volume in a competitive market. 12-4Activity-based costing helps managers in pricing decisions in two ways. 1. It gives managers more accurate product-cost information for making pricing decisions. 2. It helps managers to manage costs during value engineering by identifying the cost impact of eliminating, reducing, or changing various activities. 12-5Two alternative starting points for long-run pricing decisions are 1. Market-based pricing, an important form of which is target pricing.The market-based approach asks, â€Å"Given what our customers want and how our competitors will react to what we do, what price should we charge? † 2. Cost-based pricing which asks, â€Å"What does it cost us to make this product and, hence, what price should we charge that will recoup our costs and achieve a target return on investment? † 12-6A target cost per unit is the estimated long-run cost per unit of a product (or service) that, when sold at the target price, enables the company to achieve the targeted operating income per unit. 2-7Value engineering is a systematic evaluation of all aspects of the value-chain business functions, with the objective of reducing costs while satisfying customer needs. Value engineering via improvement in product and process designs is a principal technique that companies use to achieve target cost per unit. 12-8A value-added co st is a cost that customers perceive as adding value, or utility, to a product or service. Examples are costs of materials, direct labor, tools, and machinery.A nonvalue-added cost is a cost that customers do not perceive as adding value, or utility, to a product or service. Examples of nonvalue-added costs are costs of rework, scrap, expediting, and breakdown maintenance. 12-9No. It is important to distinguish between when costs are locked in and when costs are incurred, because it is difficult to alter or reduce costs that have already been locked in. 12-10Cost-plus pricing is a pricing approach in which managers add a markup to cost in order to determine price. 2-11Cost-plus pricing methods vary depending on the bases used to calculate prices. Examples are (a) variable manufacturing costs; (b) manufacturing function costs; (c) variable product costs; and (d) full product costs. 12-12Two examples where the difference in the costs of two products or services is much smaller than th e differences in their prices follow: 1. The difference in prices charged for a telephone call, hotel room, or car rental during busy versus slack periods is often much greater than the difference in costs to provide these services. 2.The difference in costs for an airplane seat sold to a passenger traveling on business or a passenger traveling for pleasure is roughly the same. However, airline companies price discriminate. They routinely charge business travelers––those who are likely to start and complete their travel during the same week excluding the weekend––a much higher price than pleasure travelers who generally stay at their destinations over at least one weekend. 12-13Life-cycle budgeting is an estimate of the revenues and costs attributable to each product from its initial R&D to its final customer servicing and support. 2-14Three benefits of using a product life-cycle reporting format are: 1. The full set of revenues and costs associated with each product becomes more visible. 2. Differences among products in the percentage of total costs committed at early stages in the life cycle are highlighted. 3. Interrelationships among business function cost categories are highlighted. 12-15Predatory pricing occurs when a business deliberately prices below its costs in an effort to drive competitors out of the market and restrict supply, and then raises prices rather than enlarge demand.Under U. S. laws, dumping occurs when a non-U. S. company sells a product in the United States at a price below the market value in the country where it is produced, and this lower price materially injures or threatens to materially injure an industry in the United States. Collusive pricing occurs when companies in an industry conspire in their pricing and production decisions to achieve a price above the competitive price and so restrain trade. 12-16(20–30 min. ) Relevant-cost approach to pricing decisions, special order. . Relevant revenue s, $4. 00 ( 1,000$4,000 Relevant costs Direct materials, $1. 60 ( 1,000$1,600 Direct manufacturing labor, $0. 90 ( 1,000900 Variable manufacturing overhead, $0. 70 ( 1,000700 Variable selling costs, 0. 05 ( $4,000 200 Total relevant costs 3,400 Increase in operating income$ 600 This calculation assumes that: a. The monthly fixed manufacturing overhead of $150,000 and $65,000 of monthly fixed marketing costs will be unchanged by acceptance of the 1,000 unit order. b.The price charged and the volumes sold to other customers are not affected by the special order. Chapter 12 uses the phrase â€Å"one-time-only special order† to describe this special case. 2. The president’s reasoning is defective on at least two counts: a. The inclusion of irrelevant costs––assuming the monthly fixed manufacturing overhead of $150,000 will be unchanged; it is irrelevant to the decision. b. The exclusion of relevant costs––variable selling costs (5% of the sellin g price) are excluded. 3. Key issues are: . Will the existing customer base demand price reductions? If this 1,000-tape order is not independent of other sales, cutting the price from $5. 00 to $4. 00 can have a large negative effect on total revenues. b. Is the 1,000-tape order a one-time-only order, or is there the possibility of sales in subsequent months? The fact that the customer is not in Dill Company’s â€Å"normal marketing channels† does not necessarily mean it is a one-time-only order. Indeed, the sale could well open a new marketing channel.Dill Company should be reluctant to consider only short-run variable costs for pricing long-run business. 12-17(20–30 min. )Relevant-cost approach to short-run pricing decisions. 1. Analysis of special order: Sales, 3,000 units ( $75$225,000 Variable costs: Direct materials, 3,000 units ( $35$105,000 Direct manufacturing labor, 3,000 units ( $1030,000 Variable manufacturing overhead, 3,000 units ( $618,000 Other v ariable costs, 3,000 units ( $515,000 Sales commission 8,000 Total variable costs 176,000 Contribution margin$ 49,000Note that the variable costs, except for commissions, are affected by production volume, not sales dollars. If the special order is accepted, operating income would be $1,000,000 + $49,000 = $1,049,000. 2. Whether McMahon’s decision to quote full price is correct depends on many factors. He is incorrect if the capacity would otherwise be idle and if his objective is to increase operating income in the short run. If the offer is rejected, San Carlos, in effect, is willing to invest $49,000 in immediate gains forgone (an opportunity cost) to preserve the long-run selling-price structure.McMahon is correct if he thinks future competition or future price concessions to customers will hurt San Carlos’s operating income by more than $49,000. There is also the possibility that Abrams could become a long-term customer. In this case, is a price that covers only s hort-run variable costs adequate? Would Holtz be willing to accept a $8,000 sales commission (as distinguished from her regular $33,750 = 15% ( $225,000) for every Abrams order of this size if Abrams becomes a long-term customer? 12-18(15-20 min. Short-run pricing, capacity constraints. 1. Per kilogram of hard cheese: |Milk (8 liters [pic] $2. 00 per liter) |$16 | |Direct manufacturing labor |5 | |Variable manufacturing overhead |4 | |Fixed manufacturing cost allocated | 6 | |Total manufacturing cost |$31 | | | |If Colorado Mountains Dairy can get all the Holstein milk it needs, and has sufficient production capacity, then the minimum price per kilo it should charge for the hard cheese is the variable cost per kilo = $16 + $5 + $4 = $25 per kilo. 2. If milk is in short supply, then each kilo of hard cheese displaces 2 kilos of soft cheese (8  liters of milk per kilo of hard cheese versus 4 liters of milk per kilo of soft cheese). Then, for the hard cheese, the minimum price Colora do Mountains should charge is the variable cost per kilo of hard cheese plus the contribution margin from 2 kilos of soft cheese, or, 25 + (2 [pic] $10 per kilo) = $45 per kilo That is, if milk is in short supply, Colorado Mountains should not agree to produce any hard cheese unless the buyer is willing to pay at least $45 per kilo. 12-19 (25–30 min. ) Value-added, nonvalue-added costs. 1. |Category |Examples | | |Value-added costs |a. Materials and labor for regular repairs |$800,000 | |Nonvalue-added costs |b.Rework costs |$ 75,000 | | |c. Expediting costs caused by work delays |60,000 | | |g. Breakdown maintenance of equipment |55,000 | | |Total |$190,000 | |Gray area |d.Materials handling costs |$ 50,000 | | |e. Materials procurement and inspection costs |35,000 | | |f. Preventive maintenance of equipment |15,000 | | |Total |$100,000 |Classifications of value-added, nonvalue-added, and gray area costs are often not clear-cut. Other classifications of some of the cost cat egories are also plausible. For example, some students may include materials handling, materials procurement, and inspection costs and preventive maintenance as value-added costs (costs that customers perceive as adding value and as being necessary for good repair service) rather than as in the gray area.Preventive maintenance, for instance, might be regarded as value-added because it helps prevent nonvalue-adding breakdown maintenance. 2. Total costs in the gray area are $100,000. Of this, we assume 65%, or $65,000, are value-added and 35%, or $35,000, are nonvalue-added. Total value-added costs: $800,000 + $65,000 $ 865,000 Total nonvalue-added costs: $190,000 + $35,000 225,000 Total costs$1,090,000 Nonvalue-added costs are $225,000 ? $1,090,000 = 20. 64% of total costs.Value-added costs are $865,000 ? $1,090,000 = 79. 36% of total costs. |3. |Effect on Costs Classified as | | |Value-Added |Nonvalue-Added |Gray | |Program | | |Area | |(a) Quality improvement programs to | | | | |à ¢â‚¬ ¢ reduce rework costs by 75% (0. 5 ( $75,000) | |–$ 56,250 | | |†¢ reduce expediting costs by 75% | | | | |(0. 75 ( $60,000) | |– 45,000 | | |†¢ reduce materials and labor costs by 5% | | | | |(0. 5 ( $800,000) |–$ 40,000 |  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   | | |Total effect |–$ 40,000 |–$101,250 | | | | | | | |(b) Working with suppliers to | | | | |†¢ reduce materials procurement and inspection costs by 20% (0. 0 ( $35,000) | | | | |†¢ reduce materials handling costs by 25% | | |–$ 7,000 | |(0. 25 ( $50,000) | | | | |Total effect | | |– 12,500 | |Transferring 65% of gray area costs (0. 5 ( | | |– 19,500 | |$19,500 = $12,675) as value-added and 35% | | | | |(0. 5 ( $19,500 = $6,825) as nonvalue-added | | | | |Effect on value-added and nonvalue-added costs |–$ 12,675 |–$ 6,825 |+ 19,500 | | |–$ 12,675 |–$ 6,825 |$ 0 | |(c) Maintenance programs to | | | | |†¢ increase preventive maintenance costs by 50% | | | | |(0. 0 ( $15,000) | | |+$ 7,500 | |†¢ decrease breakdown maintenance costs by 40% | | | | |(0. 40 ( $55,000) | |–$ 22,000 |  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   | |Total effect | |– 22,000 |+ 7,500 | |Transferring 65% of gray area costs (0. 65 ( $7,500 = $4,875) as value-added and 35%| | | | |(0. 5 ( $7,500 = $2,625) as nonvalue-added | | | | |Effect on value-added and nonvalue-added costs |+$ 4,875 |+ 2,625 |– 7,500 | | |+$ 4,875 |–$  Ã‚  19,375 |$ 0 | |Total effect of all programs |–$ 47,800 |–$127,450 | | |Value-added and nonvalue-added costs calculated in requirement 2 | | | | |Expected value-added and nonvalue-added costs as a result of implementing these |865,000 |225,000 | | |programs | | | | | |$817,200 |$ 97,550 | | If these programs had been implemented, total costs would have decreased from $1,090,000 (requirement 2) to $817,200 + $97,550 = $914,750, and the percentage of nonvalue-added costs would decrease from 20. 64% (requirement 2) to $97,550 ? 914,750 = 10. 66%. These are significant improvements in Marino’s performance. 12-20(25(30 min. ) Target operating income, value-added costs, service company. 1. The classification of total costs in 2012 into value-added, nonvalue-added, or in the gray area in between follows: ValueGrayNonvalue-Total AddedAreaadded(4) = (1) (2) (3) (1)+(2)+(3)Doing calculations and preparing drawings 77% ? $390,000$300,300$300,300 Checking calculations and drawings 3% ? $390,000$11,70011,700 Correcting errors found in drawings 8% ? $390,000$31,20031,200 Making changes in response to client requests 5% ? $390,000 19,50019,500 Correcting errors to meet government building code, 7% ? $390,000 27,300 27,300 Total professional labor costs 319,800 11,700 58,500 390,000 Administrative and support costs at 44% ($171,600 ? $390,000) of professional labor costs 140,712 5,148 25,740 171,600 Travel 15,000   15,000 Total$475,512$16,848$84,240$576,600Doing calculations and responding to client requests for changes are value-added costs because customers perceive these costs as necessary for the service of preparing architectural drawings. Costs incurred on correcting errors in drawings and making changes because they were inconsistent with building codes are nonvalue-added costs. Customers do not perceive these costs as necessary and would be unwilling to pay for them. Calvert should seek to eliminate these costs by making sure that all associates are well-informed regarding building code requirements and by training associates to improve the quality of their drawings. Checking calculations and drawings is in the gray area (some, but not all, checking may be needed). There is room for disagreement on these classifications.For example, checking calculations may be regarded as value added. 2. Reduction in professional labor-hours by a. Correcting errors in drawings (8% ? 7,500)600 hours b. Correcting errors to conform to building code (7% ? 7,500) 525 hours Total 1,125 hours Cost savings in professional labor costs (1,125 hours ? $52)$ 58,500 Cost savings in variable administrative and support costs (44% ? $58,500) 25,740 Total cost savings$ 84,240 Current operating income in 2012$124,650 Add cost savings from eliminating errors 84,240 Operating income in 2012 if errors eliminated$208,890 3. Currently 85% ? 7,500 hours = 6,375 hours are billed to clients generating revenues of $701,250.The remaining 15% of professional labor-hours (15% ? 7,500 = 1,125 hours) is lost in making corrections. Calvert bills clients at the rate of $701,250 ? 6,375 = $110 per professional labor-hour. If the 1,125 professional labor-hours currently not being billed to clients were billed to clients, Calvert’s revenues would increase by 1,125 hours ? $110 = $123,750 from $701,250 to $825,000 ($701,250 + $123,750). Costs remain unchanged Professional labor costs$390,000 Administrative and support (44% ? $390,000) 171,600 Travel 15,000 Total costs$576,600 Calvert’s operating income would be Revenues$825,000 Total costs 576,600 Operating income$248,400 12-21(25–30 min. Target prices, target costs, activity-based costing. 1. Snappy’s operating income in 2011 is as follows: | |Total for | | | |250,000 Tiles |Per Unit | | |(1) |(2) = (1) ? 250,000 | |Revenues ($4 ( 250,000) |$1,000,000 |$4. 00 | |Purchase cost of tiles ($3 ( 250,000) |750,000 |3. 0 | |Ordering costs ($50 ( 500) |25,000 |0. 10 | |Receiving and storage ($30 ( 4,000) |120,000 |0. 48 | |Shipping ($40 ( 1,500) |60,000 |0. 24 | |Total costs |955,000 |3. 82 | |Operating income |$ 45,000 |$0. 18 | 2.Price to retailers in 2012 is 95% of 2011 price = 0. 95 ( $4 = $3. 80; cost per tile in 2012 is 96% of 2011 cost = 0. 96 ( $3 = $2. 88. Snappy’s operating income in 2012 is as follows: | |Total for | | | |250,000 Tiles |Per Unit | | |(1) |(2) = (1) ? 250,000 | |Revenues ($3. 80 ( 250,000) |$950,000 |$3. 0 | |Purchase cost of tiles ($2. 88 ( 250,000) |720,000 |2. 88 | |Ordering costs ($50 ( 500) |25,000 |0. 10 | |Receiving and storage ($30 ( 4,000) |120,000 |0. 48 | |Shipping ($40 ( 1,500) |60,000 |0. 24 | |Total costs |925,000 |3. 0 | |Operating income |$ 25,000 |$0. 10 | 3. Snappy’s operating income in 2012, if it makes changes in ordering and material handling, will be as follows: | |Total for | | | |250,000 Tiles |Per Unit | | |(1) |(2) = (1) ? 50,000 | |Revenues ($3. 80 ( 250,000) |$950,000 |$3. 80 | |Purchase cost of tiles ($2. 88 ( 250,000) |720,000 |2. 88 | |Ordering costs ($25 ( 200) |5,000 |0. 02 | |Receiving and storage ($28 ( 3,125) |87,500 |0. 35 | |Shipping ($40 ( 1,500) |60,000 |0. 4 | |Total costs |872,500 |3. 49 | |Operating income |$ 77,500 |$0. 31 | Through better cost management, Snappy will be able to achieve its target operating income of $0. 30 per tile despite the fact that its revenue per tile has decreased by $0. 20 ($4. 0 0 – $3. 80), while its purchase cost per tile has decreased by only $0. 12 ($3. 00 – $2. 88). 12-22 (20 min. ) Target costs, effect of product-design changes on product costs. 1. and 2.Manufacturing costs of HJ6 in 2010 and 2011 are as follows: 2010 2011 Per UnitPer Unit Total (2) = Total (4) = (1)(1) ? 3,500 (3)(3) ? 4,000 Direct materials, $1,200 ? 3,500; $1,100 ? 4,000$4,200,000$1,200$4,400,000$1,100 Batch-level costs, $8,000 ? 70; $7,500 ? 80 560,000 160 600,000 150 Manuf. operations costs, $55 ? 21,000; $50 ? 22,000 1,155,000 330 1,100,000 275 Engineering change costs, $12,000 ? 14; $10,000 ? 10 168,000 48 100,000 25 Total$6,083,000$1,738$6,200,000$1,550 3. [pic]= [pic] ? 90% = $1,738 ? 0. 90 = $1,564. 20 Actual manufacturing cost per unit of HJ6 in 2011 was $1,550.Hence, Medical Instruments did achieve its target manufacturing cost per unit of $1,564. 20 4. To reduce the manufacturing cost per unit in 2011, Medical Instruments reduced the cost per unit in each of the four cost categories—direct materials costs, batch-level costs, manufacturing operations costs, and engineering change costs. It also reduced machine-hours and number of engineering changes made—the quantities of the cost drivers. In 2010, Medical Instruments used 6 machine-hours per unit of HJ6 (21,000 machine-hours (3,500 units). In 2011, Medical Instruments used 5. 5 machine-hours per unit of HJ6 (22,000 machine-hours ( 4,000 units). Medical Instruments reduced engineering changes from 14 in 2010 to 10 in 2011.Medical Instruments achieved these gains through value engineering activities that retained only those product features that customers wanted while eliminating nonvalue-added activities and costs. 12-23(20 min. )Cost-plus target return on investment pricing. 1. Target operating income = target return on investment ( invested capital Target operating income (25% of $900,000)$225,000 Total fixed costs 375,000 Target contribution margin$600,000 Target contri bution per room-night, ($600,000 ? 15,000) $40 Add variable costs per room-night 5 Price to be charged per room-night $45 Proof Total room revenues ($45 ( 15,000 room-nights)$675,000 Total costs: Variable costs ($5 ( 15,000)$ 75,000 Fixed costs 375,000Total costs 450,000 Operating income$225,000 The full cost of a room = variable cost per room + fixed cost per room The full cost of a room = $5 + ($375,000 ? 15,000) = $5 + $25 = $30 Markup per room = Rental price per room – Full cost of a room = $45 – $30 = $15 Markup percentage as a fraction of full cost = $15 ? $30 = 50% 2. If price is reduced by 10%, the number of rooms Beck could rent would increase by 10%. The new price per room would be 90% of $45 $ 40. 50 The number of rooms Beck expects to rent is 110% of 15,000 16,500 The contribution margin per room would be $40. 50 – $5$ 35. 50 Contribution margin ($35. 50 ( 16,500)$585,750Because the contribution margin of $585,750 at the reduced price of $40. 50 is l ess than the contribution margin of $600,000 at a price of $45, Blodgett should not reduce the price of the rooms. Note that the fixed costs of $375,000 will be the same under the $45 and the $40. 50 price alternatives and hence, are irrelevant to the analysis. 12-24(20(25 min. )Cost-plus, target pricing, working backwards. 1. Investment$8,400,000 Return on investment18% Operating income (18% ( $8,400,000)$1,512,000 Operating income per unit of XR500 ($1,512,000 ( 1,500)$1,008 Full cost per unit of XR500 (1,008 ? 0. 09)$11,200 Selling price (($11,200 + $1,008))$12,208 Markup percentage on variable cost ($1,008 ( $8,450)11. 93%Total fixed costs = (Full cost per unit – Variable cost per unit) ( Units sold = ($11,200 – $8,450) ( 1,500 units = $4,125,000 2. Contribution margin per unit = $12,208 – $8,450 = $3,758 Increase in sales = $10% ( 1,500 units = 150 units Increase in contribution margin = $3,758 ( 150 units =$563,700 Less: Advertising costs 500,000 Increase in operating income$ 63,700 Road Warrior should spend $500,000 in advertising because it increases operating income by $63,700. 3. |Revenues ($12,208 ? 1,400 units) |$17,091,200 | |Target full cost at 9% markup ($17,091,200 ? 1. 9) |$15,680,000 | |Less: Target total fixed costs ($4,125,000 – $125,000) | 4,000,000 | |Target total variable costs |$11,680,000 | |Divided by number of units | ? 1,400 units | |Target variable cost per unit |$ 8,342. 86 | 12-25(20 min. ) Life-cycle product costing. 1. [pic]Contribution margin per unit = Selling price – Variable cost per unit = $50 – $25 = $25 |Total fixed costs over |= |Design fixed costs |+ |Production fixed |+ |Marketing and distribution | |life of robot | | | |costs | |fixed costs | = $650,000 + $3,560,000 + $2,225,000 = $6,435,000 BEP in units = [pic] 2a. Option A: |Revenues ($50 [pic] 500,000 units) |$25,000,000 | |Variable costs ($25 [pic] 500,000 units) |12,500,000 | |Fixed costs | 6,435,000 | |Operating incom e |$ 6,065,000 | 2b. Option B: Revenues | | | Year 2 ($70 [pic] 100,000 units) |$ 7,000,000 | | Years 3 & 4 ($40[pic]600,000 units) | 24,000,000 | | Total revenues |31,000,000 | |Variable costs ($25 [pic] 700,000 units) |17,500,000 | |Fixed costs | 6,435,000 | |Operating income |$ 7,065,000 | Over the product’s life-cycle, Option B results in an overall higher operating income of $1,000,000 ($7,065,000 – $6,065,000). 12-26(30 min. )Relevant-cost approach to pricing decisions. |1. Revenues (1,000 crates at $117 per crate) | |$117,000 | | |Variable costs: | | | | | Manufacturing |$35,000 | | | | Marketing | 17,000 | | | | Total variable costs | | 52,000 | | |Contribution margin | |65,000 | | |Fixed costs: | | | | | Manufacturing |$30,000 | | | | Marketing | 13,000 | | | | Total fixed costs | | 43,000 | | |Operating income | |$ 22,000 | Normal markup percentage: $65,000 ? $52,000 = 125% of total variable costs. 2. Only the manufacturing-cost category is relevant to con sidering this special order; no additional marketing costs will be incurred. Variable manufacturing cost per crate = $35,000 ? 1,000 crates = $35 per crate.The relevant manufacturing costs for the 200-crate special order are: Variable manufacturing cost per unit $35 ( 200 crates$ 7,000 Special packaging 3,000 Relevant manufacturing costs$10,000 Any price above $50 per crate ($10,000 ? 200) will make a positive contribution to operating income. Therefore, based on financial considerations, Stardom should accept the 200-crate special order at $55 per crate that will generate revenues of $11,000 ($55 ( 200) and relevant (incremental) costs of $10,000. The reasoning based on a comparison of $55 per crate price with the $65 per crate absorption cost ignores monthly cost-volume-profit relationships.The $65 per crate absorption cost includes a $30 per crate cost component that is irrelevant to the special order. The relevant range for the fixed manufacturing costs is from 500 to 2,000 crat es per month; the special order will increase production from 1,000 to 1,200 crates per month. Furthermore, the special order requires no incremental marketing costs. 3. If the new customer is likely to remain in business, Burst should consider whether a strictly short-run focus is appropriate. For example, what is the likelihood of demand from other customers increasing over time? If Burst accepts the 200-crate special offer for more than one month, it may preclude accepting other customers at prices exceeding $55 per crate.Moreover, the existing customers may learn about Burst’s willingness to set a price based on variable cost plus a small contribution margin. The longer the time frame over which Burst keeps selling 200 crates of canned peaches at $55 a crate, the more likely it is that existing customers will approach Burst for their own special price reductions. If the new customer wants the contract to extend over a longer time period, Burst should negotiate a higher pr ice. 12-27(25–30 min. )Considerations other than cost in pricing decisions. 1. |Guest nights on weeknights: | | |18 weeknights ? 100 rooms ? 0% = 1,620 | | |Guest nights on weekend nights: | | |12 weekend nights ? 100 rooms ? 20% = 240 | | |Total guest nights in April = 1,620 + 240 = 1,860 | | |Breakfasts served: | | |1,620 weeknight guest nights ? 1. 0 = 1,620 | | | 240 weekend guest nights ? 2. = 600 | | |Total breakfasts served in April = 1,620 + 600 = 2,220 | | |Total costs for April: | | |Depreciation |$ 20,000 | |Administrative costs |35,000 | |Fixed housekeeping and supplies |12,000 | |Variable housekeeping and supplies (1,860 ? $25) |46,500 | |Fixed breakfast costs |5,000 | |Variable breakfast costs (2,220 ? 5) | 11,100 | |Total costs for April |$129,600 | |Cost per guest night ($129,600 ? 1,860) |$69. 68 | |Revenue for April ($68 ? 1,860) |$126,480 | |Total costs for April | 129,600 | |Operating income/(loss) |$ (3,120) | 2. |New weeknight guest nights | | |18 weeknights ? 100 rooms ? 5% = 1,530 | | |New weekend guest nights | | |12 weeknights ? 100 rooms ? 50% = 600 | | |Total guest nights in April = 1,530 + 600 = 2,130 | | |Breakfasts served: | | |1,530 weeknight guest nights ? 1. 0 = 1,530 | | | 600 weekend guest nights ? 2. = 1,500 | | |Total breakfasts served in April = 1,530 + 1,500 = 3,030 | | |Total costs for April: | | |Depreciation |$20,000 | |Administrative costs |35,000 | |Fixed housekeeping and supplies |12,000 | |Variable housekeeping and supplies (2,130 ? $25) |53,250 | |Fixed breakfast costs |5,000 | |Variable breakfast costs (3,030 ? $5) | 15,150 | |Total costs |$140,400 | |Revenue [(1,530 ? $80) + (600 ? 50)] |$152,400 | |Total costs for April | 140,400 | |Operating income |$ 12,000 | Yes, this pricing arrangement would increase operating income by $15,120 from an operating loss of $3,120 to an operating income of $12,000 ($12,000 + $3,120 = $15,120). 3. The weeknight guests are business travelers who have to stay at the hotel on weeknights to conduct business for their organizations. They are probably not paying personally for their hotel stays, and they are more interested in the hotel’s location in the business park than the price of the stay, as long as it is reasonable. The demand of business travelers is inelastic.In contrast, the weekend guests are families who are staying at the hotel for pleasure and are paying for the hotel from their personal incomes. They are willing to consider other hotel options or even not travel at all if the price is high and unaffordable. The demand of pleasure travelers is elastic. Because of the differences in preferences of the weeknight and weekend guests, Executive Suites can price discriminate between these guests by charging $30 more on weeknights than on weekends and still have weeknight travelers stay at the hotel. 4. Executive Suites would need to charge a minimum of $35 per night for the last-minute rooms, an amount equal to the variable cost per room. Variable cost per room night = $25 per room night + $5 ? breakfasts = $35. Any price above $35 would increase Executive Suites operating income. 12-28 (25 min. ) Cost-plus, target pricing, working backward. 1. In the following table, work backwards from operating income to calculate the selling price |Selling price |$ 10. 14 (plug) | |Less: Variable cost per unit | 3. 75 | |Unit contribution margin |$ 6. 39 | |Number of units produced and sold | ? 00,000 units | |Contribution margin |$3,195,000 | |Less: Fixed costs | 3,000,000 | |Operating income |$ 195,000 | a)Total sales revenue = $10. 14 [pic] 500,000 units = $5,070,000 b)Selling price = $10. 14 (from above) Alternatively, |Operating income |$ 195,000 | |Add fixed costs | 3,000,000 | |Contribution margin |3,195,000 | |Add variable costs ($3. 75 ? 500,000 units) | 1,875,000 | |Sales revenue |$5,070,000 | [pic] )Rate of return on investment = [pic] d)Markup % on full cost Total cost = ($3. 75 [pic] 500,000 units) + $3,000,000 = $4,875,000 Unit cost = [pic] Markup % = [pic] Or [pic] |2. |New fixed costs |=$3,000,000 – $200,000 = $2,800,000 | | |New variable costs |= $3. 75 – $0. 60 = $3. 15 | | |New total costs |= ($3. 15 ? 500,000 units) + $2,800,000 = $4,375,000 | | |New total sales (5% markup) |= $4,375,000 [pic] 1. 4 = $4,550,000 | | |New selling price |= $4,550,000 ? 500,000 units = $9. 10 | | |Alternatively, | | | |New unit cost |= $4,375,000 ? 500,000 units = $8. 75 | | |New selling price |= $8. 75 [pic] 1. 04 = $9. 10 | |3. |New units sold = 500,000 units ? 90% = $450,000 units | Budgeted Operating Income | |for the Year Ending December 31, 20xx | |Revenues ($9. 10 [pic] 450,000 units) |$4,095,000 | |Variable costs ($3. 15 [pic] 450,000 units) | 1,417,500 | |Contribution margin |2,677,500 | |Fixed costs | 2,800,000 | |Operating income (loss) |$ (122,500) | 12-29(40–45 min. ) Target prices, target costs, value engineering, cost incurrence, locked-in cost, activi ty-based costing. 1. |Old CE100 | |New CE100 | | | |Cost Change | | |Direct materials costs |$182,000 |$2. 20 [pic] 7,000 = $15,400 less |$166,600 | |Direct manufacturing labor costs |28,000 |$0. 50 [pic] 7,000 = $3,500 less |24,500 | |Machining costs |31,500 |Unchanged because capacity same |31,500 | |Testing costs |35,000 |(20% [pic] 2. 5 [pic] 7,000) ? 2 = $7,000 |28,000 | |Rework costs |14,000 |(See Note 1) |5,600 | |Ordering costs |3,360 |(See Note 2) |2,100 | |Engineering costs |21,140 |Unchanged because capacity same |21,140 | |Total manufacturing costs |$315,000 | |$279,440 | Note 1: 10% of old CE100s are reworked. That is, 700 (10% of 7,000) CE100s made are reworked. Rework costs = $20 per unit reworked ( 700 = $14,000. If rework falls to 4% of New CE100s manufactured, 280 (4% of 7,000) New CE100s manufactured will require rework. Rework costs = $20 per unit ( 280 = $5,600. Note 2 : Ordering costs for New CE100 = 2 orders/month ( 50 components ( $21/order = $2,100Unit manu facturing costs of New CE100 = $279,440 ? 7,000 = $39. 92 2. Total manufacturing cost reductions based on new design= $315,000 – $279,440 = $35,560 Reduction in unit manufacturing costs based on new design= $35,560 ? 7,000 = $5. 08 per unit. The reduction in unit manufacturing costs based on the new design can also be calculated as Unit cost of old design, $45 ($315,000 ? 7,000 units) – Unit cost of new design, $39. 92 = $5. 08 Therefore, the target cost reduction of $6 per unit is not achieved by the redesign. 3. Changes in design have a considerably larger impact on costs per unit relative to improvements in manufacturing efficiency ($5. 08 versus $1. 50).One explanation is that many costs are locked in once the design of the radio-cassette is completed. Improvements in manufacturing efficiency cannot reduce many of these costs. Design choices can influence many direct and overhead cost categories, for example, by reducing direct materials requirements, by reducing d efects requiring rework, and by designing in fewer components that translate into fewer orders placed and lower ordering costs. 12-30(25 min. )Cost-plus, target return on investment pricing. 1. Target operating income = Return on capital in dollars = $13,000,000[pic]10% = $1,300,000 2. |Revenues* |$6,000,000 | |Variable costs [($3. 50 + $1. 0)[pic]500,000 cases | 2,500,000 | |Contribution margin |3,500,000 | |Fixed costs ($1,000,000 + $700,000 + $500,000) | 2,200,000 | |Operating income (from requirement 1) |$1,300,000 | * solve backwards for revenues Selling price = [pic]$12 per case. Markup % on full cost Full cost = $2,500,000 + $2,200,000 = $4,700,000 Unit cost = $4,700,000 ? 500,000 cases = $9. 40 per case Markup % on full cost = [pic]27. 66% 3. Budgeted Operating Income | |For the year ending December 31, 20xx | |Revenues ($14 [pic] 475,000 cases*) |$6,650,000 | |Variable costs ($5 [pic] 475,000 cases) | 2,375,000 | |Contribution margin |4,275,000 | |Fixed costs | 2,200,000 | |Operating income |$2,075,000 | *New units = 500,000 cases[pic]95% = 475,000 casesReturn on investment = [pic]15. 96% Yes, increasing the selling price is a good idea because operating income increases without increasing invested capital, which results in a higher return on investment. The new return on investment exceeds the 10% target return on investment. 12-31(20 min. )Cost-plus, time and materials, ethics. 1. As shown in the table below, Garrison will tell Briggs that she will have to pay $460 to get the air conditioning system repaired and $440 to get it replaced. |COST |Labor |Materials |Total Cost | |Repair option (5 hrs. [pic] $30 per hr. $100) |$150 |$100 |$250 | |Replace option (2 hrs. [pic] $30 per hr. ; $200) | 60 | 200 | 260 | |   | | |   | |PRICE (100% markup on labor cost; 60% markup on materials) |Labor |Materials |Total Price | |Repair option ($150 [pic] 2; $100 [pic] 1. 6) |$300 |$160 |$460 | |Replace option ($60 [pic] 2; $200 [pic] 1. 6) | 120 | 320 | 440 | 2 .If the repair and replace options are equally effective, Briggs will choose to get the air conditioning system replaced for $440 (rather than spend $460 on repairing it). 3. R&C Mechanical will earn a greater contribution toward overhead in the repair option ($210 = $460 – $250) than in the replace option ($180 = $440 – $260). Therefore, Garrison will recommend the repair option to Briggs which is not the one she would prefer. Recognizing this conflict, Garrison may even present only the repair option to Ashley Briggs. Of course, he runs the risk of Briggs walking away and thinking of other options (at which point, he could present the replace option as a compromise). The problem is hat Garrison has superior information about the repairs needed but his incentives may cause him to not reveal his information and instead use it to his advantage. It is only the seller’s desire to build a reputation, to have a long-term relationship with the customer, and to have th e customer recommend the seller to other potential buyers of the service that encourages an honest discussion of the options. The ethical course of action would be to honestly present both options to Briggs and have her choose. To have their employees act ethically, organizations do not reward employees on the basis of the profits earned on various jobs. They also develop codes of conduct and core values and beliefs that specify appropriate and inappropriate behaviors. 12-32(25 min. )Cost-plus and market-based pricing. 1.California Temps’ full cost per hour of supplying contract labor is Variable costs$13 Fixed costs ($168,000 ? 84,000 hours) 2 Full cost per hour$15 Price per hour at full cost plus 20% = $15 ( 1. 20 = $18 per hour. 2. Contribution margins for different prices and demand realizations are as follows: | | |Contribution Margin per | | | | |Variable Cost per Hour |Hour |Demand in Hours |Total Contribution | |Price per Hour |(2) |(3) = (1) – (2) |(4) |(5) = (3) ? 4) | |(1) | | | | | |$16 |$13 |$3 |124,000 |$372,000 | |17 |13 |4 |104,000 |416,000 | |18 |13 |5 |84,000 |420,000 | |19 |13 |6 |74,000 |444,000 | |20 |13 |7 |61,000 |427,000 | Fixed costs will remain the same regardless of the demand realizations.Fixed costs are, therefore, irrelevant since they do not differ among the alternatives. The table above indicates that California Temps can maximize contribution margin ($444,000) and operating income by charging a price of $19 per hour. 3. The cost-plus approach to pricing in requirement 1 does not explicitly consider the effect of prices on demand. The approach in requirement 2 models the interaction between price and demand and determines the optimal level of profitability using concepts of relevant costs. The two different approaches lead to two different prices in requirements 1 and 2. As the chapter describes, pricing decisions should consider both demand or market considerations and supply or cost factors.The approach in requir ement 2 is the more balanced approach. In most cases, of course, managers use the cost-plus method of requirement 1 as only a starting point. They then modify the cost-plus price on the basis of market considerations—anticipated customer reaction to alternative price levels and the prices charged by competitors for similar products. 12-33Cost-plus and market-based pricing. 1. Single rate = [pic] $11. 91 per test-hour (TH) Hourly billing rate for HTT and ACT = $11. 91[pic]1. 45 = $17. 27 2. Labor and supervision = [pic]= $4. 64 per test-hour Setup and facility costs = [pic]= $503. 275 per setup-hour Utilities = [pic]= $36. 80 per machine-hour (MH) 3. |HTT |ACT |Total | |Labor and supervision |$295,104 |$196,736 |$ 491,840 | |($4. 64? 63, 600; 42,400 test-hours)1 | | | | |Setup and facility cost |100,655 |301,965 |402,620 | |($503. 275? 200; 600 setup-hours)2 | | | | |Utilities | 184,000 | | | |($36. 80? ,000; 5,000 machine-hours)3 | |184,000 |368,000 | |Total cost |$579,759 | $682,701 |$1,262,460 | |Number of testing hours (TH) |? 63,600 TH |? 42,400 TH | | |Cost per testing hour |$9. 12 per TH |$ 16. 10 per TH | | |Mark-up | ? 1. 45 | ? 1. 5 | | |Billing rate per testing hour |$ 13. 22 per TH |$ 23. 35 per TH | | | | | | | 1106,000 test-hours [pic] 60% = 63,600 test-hours; 106,000 test-hours[pic]40% = 42,400 test-hours 2800 setup-hours ? 25% = 200 setup-hours; 800 setup-hours ? 75% = 600 setup-hours 310,000 machine-hours ? 50% = 5,000 machine-hours; 10,000 machine-hours ? 50% = 5,000 machine-hours The billing rates based on the activity-based cost structure make more sense.These billing rates reflect the ways the testing procedures consume the firm’s resources. 4. To stay competitive, Best Test needs to be more efficient in arctic testing. Roughly 44% of arctic testing’s total cost [pic] occurs in setups and facility costs. Perhaps the setup activity can be redesigned to achieve cost savings. Best Test should also look for savings in the labor and supervision cost per test-hour and the total number of test-hours used in arctic testing, as well as the utility cost per machine-hour and the total number of machine hours used in arctic testing. This may require redesigning the test, redesigning processes, and achieving efficiency and productivity improvements. 12-34(25–30 min. )Life-cycle costing. 1. Total Project Life-Cycle Costs | |Variable costs: | | | Metal extraction and processing ($100 per ton ? 50,000 tons) |$5,000,000 | |Fixed costs: | | | Metal extraction and processing ($4,000 ? 24 months) |96,000 | | Rent on temporary buildings ($2,000 ? 7 months) |54,000 | | Administration ($5,000 ? 27 months) |135,000 | | Clean-up ($30,000 ? 3 months) |90,000 | | Land restoration |475,000 | | Selling land | 150,000 | |Total life-cycle cost |$6,000,000 | 2. Projected Life Cycle Income Statement | |Revenue ($150 per ton [pic] 50,000 tons) |$7,500,000 | |Sale of land (plug after inputting other numbers) |500,000 | |Total life-cycle cost | (6,000,000) | |Life-cycle operating income ($40 per ton ? 50,000 tons) |$2,000,000 | Mark-up percentage on project life-cycle cost = [pic] [pic] = 33? % 3. |Revenue ($140 per ton [pic] 50,000 tons) |$7,000,000 | |Sale of land | 400,000 | |Total revenue |$7,400,000 | |Total life-cycle cost at mark-up of 33? % |$5,550,000 | |($7,400,000 ? 1. 33333) | | |New Life would need to reduce total life-cycle costs by |$ 450,000 | |($6,000,000 – $5,550,000) | | |Check | | |Revenue |$7,000,000 | |Sale of land |400,000 | |Total life-cycle cost |(5,550,000) | |Life-cycle operating income |$1,850,000 | |Mark-up percentage = [pic]= 33? | | 12-35  (30 min. ) Airline pricing, considerations other than cost in pricing. 1. If the fare is $500, a. Air Eagle would expect to have 200 business and 100 pleasure travelers. b. Variable costs per passenger would be $65. c. Contribution margin per passenger = $500 – $65 = $435. If the fare is $2,100, a. Air Eagle w ould expect to have 180 business and 20 pleasure travelers. b. Variable costs per passenger would be $175. c. Contribution margin per passenger = $2,100 – $175 = $1,925. Contribution margin from business travelers at prices of $500 and $2,100, respectively, follow: At a price of $500: $435 ? 200 passengers = $ 87,000At a price of $2,100: $1,925 ? 180 passengers= $346,500 Air Eagle would maximize contribution margin and operating income by charging business travelers a fare of $2,100. Contribution margin from pleasure travelers at prices of $500 and $2,100, respectively, follow: At a price of $500: $435 ? 100 passengers= $43,500 At a price of $2,100: $1,925 ? 20 passengers= $38,500 Air Eagle would maximize contribution margin and operating income by charging pleasure travelers a fare of $500. Air Eagle would maximize contribution margin and operating income by a price differentiation strategy, where business travelers are charged $2,100 and pleasure travelers $500.In deciding between the alternative prices, all other costs such as fuel costs, allocated annual lease costs, allocated ground services costs, and allocated flight crew salaries are irrelevant. Why? Because these costs will not change whatever price Air Eagle chooses t

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Bush V. Gore

Josh Hanlon January 11th, 2013 CLN4U-01 Mr. Currie Law Research Essay Bush vs. Gore: Why The Votes Should Have Been Counted Bush vs. Gore was described as a controversial election to say the least. The votes in several Florida counties were put up into question as to whether they should be counted or not. In a Democratic Election all legal votes must be counted. The main arguments around this issue were Article 2, Section 1 of the Constitution, the interpretation of the Equal Protection Clause and confusion around voting deadlines during the Recount. This process was exacerbated by the lack of impartial justices and secretary of state.The initial argument surrounding this issue is Article 2, Section 1 of the Constitution. Article 2, Section 1 of the Constitution states, â€Å"In presidential elections, each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, the electors to which the State is entitled. † That being said 3 justices, Rehnquist, Scalia, and Thomas all argued that Florida violated this; there argument placed a lot of emphasis on the word â€Å"legislature†. Meaning to say that there is a difference between the State, who is empowered to appoint its own electors and that own State’s legislature.Furthermore, this Article of the Constitution is completely out of the Supreme Court’s jurisdiction in the circumstances. The Supreme Court should have nothing to do with matters of state law in between the State and their own Legislature. Also, the Florida Supreme Court held that â€Å"a legal vote may include any ballot from which it is reasonably possible to determine the clear intent of the voter, whether or not the ‘chad’ had been completely punched through, which is consistent with the law of the clear majority of the States†.Chief Justice Rehnquist in his opinion argued that this interpretation was so ridiculous and not mirrored with Florida legislation, that it violated Article 2. He claimed that because most counties use punch cards that tell you to clearly punch your ballot no reasonable person could count a vote that wasn’t clearly punched all the way through. (Geoffrey R. Stone, Equal Protection? )The Florida Election Code states that â€Å"no vote shall be declared invalid if there is a clear indication of the intent of the voter†, also a 60 year old Florida Law precedent states that â€Å"must give statutes relating to elections a construction in favor of the citizen’s right to vote, and the intention of the voters should prevail when counting ballots† (Constitution of the State of Florida, As Revised in 1968) After hearing this, the other 6 Justices concluded that the Florida Supreme Court decision was in long established precedent and said it didn’t even raise a question under Article 2 of the Constitution.In simpler terms, stating that all of those votes were legal and that the standards set were sufficient to deter mine which votes should and should not be counted. Onto the Equal Protection Clause, the Supreme Court basically contradicts themselves on this matter. After stating the voting standards set by the Florida Supreme Court didn’t violate Article 2, they continued on to state that it violates the Equal Protection clause because â€Å"the standards for accepting or rejecting contested ballots might vary not only from county to county but even within a single county† (Geoffrey R.Stone, Equal Protection? ). What is startling is that the Florida Constitution states, â€Å"The intention of the voters should prevail when counting ballots† meaning that if there is any intention the vote should be counted, and if this wasn’t precise enough for the Supreme Court why did they vote to uphold it on the Article 2, Section 1 vote? If the Supreme Court required a uniform standard for counting and recounting votes in Florida, why does it not need a uniform standard for votin g?Is the fact that punch card voting has a sufficiently higher chance of having your vote not counted compared to computer voting where there is a bare minimum chance of your votes not being counted violating the Equal Protection Clause as well? Or is it the fact that punch card counties are more commonly in low income counties, who tend to vote Republican (Al Gore)? All of these things ould be seen as discriminatory or â€Å"not equal† as well as the non-uniform standard for counting, but if the Supreme Court has decided that the recount standard is in violation then in thought the whole Election should be rendered â€Å"Unconstitutional† and put to an end, correct? To continue, no it should not be put to an end. The Supreme Court should have ordered a stay on the Recount until a uniform standard was put in place for all of the Florida Counties and they should have ordered that every state have a uniform standard for Recounts for future elections.The Supreme Court mad e a Pragmatic but Unlawful decision in voting for the violation of the Equal Protection Clause which led to the stoppage of the 2000 Florida Recount. (Bo Li, Perspectives, Vol. 2, No. 3). This goes without mentioning the fact that Bush’s state of Texas had a uniform voting standard which allowed anything to be counted in the scenario of a recount including a dimpled chad. This means that Governor Bush signed in a bill that let any vote with slight intent be counted in the process of a Recount, yet is arguing that intent of a voter is an unconstitutional argument.This is hypocritical and shows a lack of character, if Bush truly believes in the Constitution he should be letting all the legal votes be counted to see if he actually won the Presidency of the United States. If Bush truly cared about the simple uniform standards for Recounting, he should have ordered for a stay until uniform standards were set in place. Instead he argued the entire Recount unconstitutional and the 5 -4 majority (5 Republican Judges-4 Democratic Judges) decided that there was no reason to Recount possibly legal votes when it had a chance of harming Bush’s chance to become Prime Minister.Legal analysts from all over the Country explained it as the Justices trying to make a pragmatic decision by putting an end to this controversy, turns out it backfired on them. (Geoffrey R. Stone, Equal Protection? ) The third point to be explained in this case is the ongoing controversy over voting deadlines and how the ever so bright Secretary of State in Florida Katherine Harris’ thoughts were constantly being controlled by Bush advisors. Katherine Harris (and Friends) made it very clear that they would ot be accepting votes after a certain deadline, which left no time for the original recount. All these votes had to be stamped and signed to be considered legal votes. This left the Democratic Party frantically trying to recount votes and get them stamped and in on time. When she ruled that if votes were not stamped and signed they could not be accepted, the Democratic Party argued that tons of Military votes could not be counted because they were very rarely stamped and signed. In the US there is no voting law that states Military Votes can be accepted with no signature or stamp.This obviously led to an uproar from Republicans (Who most military votes get casted for) because it was just unethical for the Democrats to take away illegal votes for the Republicans. What the Republicans fail to realize is that taking away Florida citizens legal votes because you are scared of losing is also unethical. The Democrats later changed their minds and told the Secretary to reconsider the Military votes and give them special consideration. (Joseph I. Lieberman, Military Ballots Merit a Review)There are a few other factors I would like to add to perspective before closing my argument, in Florida the Republican swayed Secretary of State Katherine Harris put 20 Thousand pe ople on the Voter Purge list. A Large group of these people had never done anything wrong, in particular an African-American Pastor could not vote because his name was similar to that of a hardened criminal in Florida (HBO Documentary, Recount). The most interesting fact of all was that the 3 Judges who voted for Bush in both instances (Rehnquist, Scalia, Thomas) were all considered Republican judges.In the last 30 years at the Supreme Court the 19 Cases involving the Equal Protection Clause concerning laws against race, elderly, and other minorities they voted a perfect 19 for 19 to uphold the Equal Protection Clause. Yet, the one case involving Politics and the party they are associated with they for some strange reason voted against it with very little reasoning. (Geoffrey R. Stone, Equal Protection? ) If that’s not Politics in Black Robes, what is. In Conclusion, Legal votes in Florida were not counted when they should have een. The various ideas such as the proper vote i n Article 2, Section 1, the contradiction and unlawful voting on the Equal Protection Clause and the confusing deadlines regarding votes were all examples of how things can be exacerbated by impartial Judges and Secretary of States. The votes in Florida should have been recounted after a uniform standard was put in place similar to the one in Texas and the real results of the 2000 Election should have been deciphered.All else aside, the whole United States should have a uniform voting, counting and recounting standard to eliminate all this confusion in the future. Bibliography http://www. leg. state. fl. us/statutes/index. cfm? mode=constitution&submenu=3 http://www. nytimes. com/2000/11/20/us/counting-vote-absentee-ballots-military-ballots-merit-review-lieberman-says. html? pagewanted=all&src=pm http://fathom. lib. uchicago. edu/1/777777122240/ http://www. oycf. org/Perspectives2/9_123100/bush_v1. htm HBO Documentary, Recount

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Free Essays on First Confession

Eyes of A Child Children see the world with different eyes than those of adults. In a situation where an adult might see a chance for failure, a child might sense an opportunity. Where adults see a person of a different race, culture, religion, or sexuality, a child will see a chance to make a new friend. Adults see shades of gray, while children see different colors of the rainbow. Because of their optimism and resiliency, children have a better grasp of the world than adults do. Adults regret their past, worry about their future, and have no time to enjoy the present. In â€Å"First Confession,† by Frank O’Connor, there is a character named Ryan who speaks about God to children before they get out of school every day. Ryan is an old woman about the age of Jackie’s Grandmother according to Jackie, and she is a God-fearing woman who attempts to instill the apprehension of God into children so that they will save themselves from mortal sin. She talks about the eternal flames of hell, the consequences of performing a poor confession, and the importance of searching one’s conscious to determine whether one is living a righteous lifestyle or not. Because of her anecdotes of gloom and doom, Jackie is terrified to perform his first communion. Ryan sees God as a vengeful figure, someone who will smite evil off of the face of this Earth without mercy. Through Ryan’s descriptions, God is an inhuman, cold, and demanding master w ho will not have any compassion for wrongdoers, regardless of their age. â€Å"All eternity! Just think of that! A whole lifetime goes by and it’s nothing, not even a drop in the ocean of your sufferings.†(O’Connor, p.311). Through Ryan’s descriptions, God is an inhuman, cold, and demanding master who will not have any compassion for wrongdoers, regardless of their age. Every adult has been a child before, and sometimes, a person, place or thing allows him or her to feel like one again.... Free Essays on First Confession Free Essays on First Confession Frank O’Connor’s â€Å"First Confession† is a short story contrasting hypocrisy and honesty in regard to religious faith, which upon reading might, with any luck, inspire a person to examine their own sincerity of faith or lack of it. O’Connor masterfully weaves together the use of three main elements: tone, characterization, and point of view, in illustrating this theme to his readers. A brief examination of these tools will show how they each contribute to the contrast itself as well as how a reading of â€Å"First Confession† might inspire a person to meditate on their own faith to discover if in fact it is of a hypocritical nature or purely honest. One basic element O’Connor uses in his contrast of hypocrisy and honesty is tone. Although this is indeed a serious subject, O’Connor makes his point by incorporating the humor of childhood inexperience into the story, thus creating a lighthearted tone. One example of this is illustrated when the reader is introduced to Jackie’s lack of familiarity with the confessional and his subsequent fumbled attempts to carry through with what he knows vaguely he should do. Such use of tone helps the reader to feel sympathetic amusement toward Jackie in his predicament and defines him as innocently honest in those attempts. To contrast hypocrisy, O’Connor once again puts this same style of humor to use creating a lighthearted tone when upon exiting the confessional Nora, Jackie’s older and â€Å"wiser† sister, puts on a â€Å"holier-than-thou† exhibition of virtue. Her doing so is an incredible follow-up to her malicious and â€Å"r egretfully† toned reminders to Jackie of his past offenses such as: â€Å"Oh, God help us! she moaned.’ Isn’t it a terrible pity you weren’t a good boy? †, â€Å"My heart bleeds for you†, and â€Å"How will you ever think of all your sins?† (O’Connor 323) as well as her musing on the dreadful punishments that surely await him whil... Free Essays on First Confession Eyes of A Child Children see the world with different eyes than those of adults. In a situation where an adult might see a chance for failure, a child might sense an opportunity. Where adults see a person of a different race, culture, religion, or sexuality, a child will see a chance to make a new friend. Adults see shades of gray, while children see different colors of the rainbow. Because of their optimism and resiliency, children have a better grasp of the world than adults do. Adults regret their past, worry about their future, and have no time to enjoy the present. In â€Å"First Confession,† by Frank O’Connor, there is a character named Ryan who speaks about God to children before they get out of school every day. Ryan is an old woman about the age of Jackie’s Grandmother according to Jackie, and she is a God-fearing woman who attempts to instill the apprehension of God into children so that they will save themselves from mortal sin. She talks about the eternal flames of hell, the consequences of performing a poor confession, and the importance of searching one’s conscious to determine whether one is living a righteous lifestyle or not. Because of her anecdotes of gloom and doom, Jackie is terrified to perform his first communion. Ryan sees God as a vengeful figure, someone who will smite evil off of the face of this Earth without mercy. Through Ryan’s descriptions, God is an inhuman, cold, and demanding master w ho will not have any compassion for wrongdoers, regardless of their age. â€Å"All eternity! Just think of that! A whole lifetime goes by and it’s nothing, not even a drop in the ocean of your sufferings.†(O’Connor, p.311). Through Ryan’s descriptions, God is an inhuman, cold, and demanding master who will not have any compassion for wrongdoers, regardless of their age. Every adult has been a child before, and sometimes, a person, place or thing allows him or her to feel like one again....

Monday, October 21, 2019

USS Maine Explosion and the Spanish-American War

USS Maine Explosion and the Spanish-American War The sinking of USS Maine took place on February 15, 1898, and contributed to the outbreak of the Spanish-American War that April. After years of unrest in Cuba, tensions began to re-escalate in the 1890s. Seeking to calm the American public, which had been calling for intervention, and to protect business interests, President William McKinley ordered the US Navy to dispatch a warship to Havana. Arriving in January 1898, USS Maine sank on February 15 after an explosion tore through the ship. Initial reports concluded that Maine had been sunk by a naval mine. Sparking a wave of outrage across the United States, the loss of the ship helped push the nation towards war. Though a later report in 1911 also concluded that a mine caused the explosion, some began to believe that it was the result of a coal dust fire. A subsequent investigation in 1974 also favored the coal dust theory though its findings have been contested. Background Since the late 1860s, efforts had been underway in Cuba to end Spanish colonial rule. In 1868, the Cubans began a ten-year rebellion against their Spanish overlords. Though it was crushed in 1878, the war had generated widespread support for the Cuban cause in the United States. Seventeen years later, in 1895, the Cubans again rose up in the revolution. To combat this, the Spanish government dispatched General Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau to crush the rebels. Arriving in Cuba, Weyler began a brutal campaign against the Cuban people which involved the use of concentration camps in rebellious provinces. This approach led to the death of over 100,000 Cubans and Weyler was promptly nicknamed the Butcher by the American press. Stories of atrocities in Cuban were played up by the yellow press, and the public put increasing pressure on Presidents Grover Cleveland and William McKinley to intervene. Working through diplomatic channels, McKinley was able to defuse the situation and Weyler was recalled to Spain in late 1897. The following January, supporters of Weyler began a series of riots in Havana. Concerned for American citizens and business interests in the area, McKinley elected to send a warship to the city. Arriving in Havana After discussing this course of action with the Spanish and receiving their blessing, McKinley passed his request to the US Navy. To fulfill the presidents orders, the second-class battleship USS Maine was detached from the North Atlantic Squadron at Key West on January 24, 1898. Commissioned in 1895, Maine possessed four 10 guns and was capable of steaming at 17 knots. With a crew of 354, Maine had spent the entirety of its brief career operating along the eastern seaboard. Commanded by Captain Charles Sigsbee, Maine entered Havana harbor on January 25, 1898. USS Maine entering Havana harbor, January 1898. US Department of Defense Anchoring in the center of the harbor, Maine was afforded the usual courtesies by the Spanish authorities. Though the arrival of Maine had a calming effect on the situation in the city, the Spanish remained wary of American intentions. Wishing to prevent a possible incident involving his men, Sigsbee restricted them to the ship and no liberty was given. In the days after Maines arrival, Sigsbee met regularly with the US Consul, Fitzhugh Lee. Discussing the state of affairs on the island, they both recommended that another ship be sent when it was time for Maine to depart. Rear Admiral Charles D. Sigsbee. US Naval History and Heritage Command Loss of Maine At 9:40 on the evening of February 15, the harbor was lit by a massive explosion that ripped through the forward section of Maine as five tons of powder for the ships guns detonated. Destroying the forward third of the ship, Maine sank into the harbor. Immediately, assistance came from the American steamer City of Washington and the Spanish cruiser Alfonso XII, with boats circling the burning remains of the battleship to collect the survivors. All told, 252 were killed in the blast, with another eight dying ashore in the days that followed. Investigation Throughout the ordeal, the Spanish showed great compassion for the injured and respect for the dead American sailors. Their behavior led Sigsbee to inform the Navy Department that public opinion should be suspended until further report, as he felt that the Spanish were not involved in the sinking of his ship. To investigate the loss of Maine, the Navy swiftly formed a board of inquiry. Due to the state of the wreck and a lack of expertise, their investigation was not as thorough as subsequent efforts. On March 28, the board announced that the ship had been sunk by a naval mine. The boards finding unleashed a wave of public outrage across the United States and fueled calls for war. While not the cause of the Spanish-American War, shouts of Remember the Maine! served to accelerate the approaching diplomatic impasse over Cuba. On April 11, McKinley asked Congress for permission to intervene in Cuba and ten days later ordered a naval blockade of the island. This final step led to Spain declaring war on April 23, with the United States following suit on the 25th. Aftermath In 1911, a second inquiry was made into the sinking of Maine following a request to remove the wreck from the harbor. Constructing a cofferdam around the ships remains, the salvage effort permitted investigators to probe the wreck. Examining the bottom hull plates around the forward reserve magazine, investigators found that they were bent inward and back. Using this information they again concluded that a mine had been detonated under the ship. While accepted by the Navy, the boards findings were disputed by experts in the field, some of whom put forward a theory that the combustion of coal dust in a bunker adjacent to the magazine had sparked the explosion. Workers preparing to raise the wreck of USS Maine, 1910. US Naval History and Heritage Command The case of USS Maine was reopened in 1974, by Admiral Hyman G. Rickover who believed that modern science might be able to provide an answer to the ships loss. After consulting experts and reexamining the documents from the first two investigations, Rickover and his team concluded that the damage was inconsistent with that caused by a mine. Rickover stated that the most likely cause was a coal dust fire. In the years after Rickovers report, his findings have been disputed and to this day there has been no final answer as to what caused the explosion.