Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Basically, my aim today is to tell you about my feelings on freedom of speech between adults and kids. Its about having authority but knowing when to let your guard down and listen. Before I begin, I want to mention that this speech contains terms and expressions that may be considered as Ãâharsh or Ãâchildish by adults, because the whole concept of this speech can be uncomfortable for some, but hey, thats exactly what Im standing up here for, therefore it would be best if you just learn to live with it so that this can be an informative speech for you, and an enjoyable one for me. Also, for the sake of saving time, I have made my opinions very general, and I am not really aiming these comments at every adult in the world. There areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦You hear the line If you give me respect, Ill give you respect from adults all the time, but a kid saying that to an adult is unheard of. Is it because students dont feel the need to have respect? Definitely not the case. Is it because we dont bother saying it, the reason being we know that most adults will frown upon such comments? Thats most likely the reason. I believe that if a child has to swa llow his or her pride constantly and just take what adults say, even if at the time they seem ridiculous and unfair, then an adult should be able to take as good as they dish out. Im not saying that if a mother or father asks their child to eat their greens that it gives the kid the right to say no, I dont have to because you have no authority. Im not saying make your own rules because nobody can tell you what to do, Im saying that a child should be able to speak with an adult like they were just a kid from the playground, like the boy you play cricket with, like the girl who plays goal attack on your netball team. Instead of preparing us to become adults and making us speak formally, learn authority levels and to respect elders all the time, why dont you adults take the opportunity to just RELAX, forget the formalities maturity brings, and just be one of us? Ã © DaN ProbstShow MoreRelatedFreedom Of Speech Essay749 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesFowler ENC 1101 26 October 2017 Limited Freedom Of Speech Freedom of speech is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"The right to express any opinions without censorship or restraintÃ¢â¬ . With this being said the audacity of universities trying to completely limit studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ freedom of speech absurd. In some cases students should be held accountable for what they have said, but all speech is not deleterious and it should not be limited. If the university exposes the power to limit speech some students might take advantage forRead MoreA Rhetorical Analysis: of I Have a Dream Essay1484 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn Martin Luther KingÃ¢â¬â¢s I Have a Dream speech, King makes use of an innumerable amount of rhetorical devices that augment the overall understanding and flow of the speech. King makes the audience feel an immense amount of emotion due to the outstanding use of pathos in his speech. King also generates a vast use of rhetorical devices including allusion, anaphora, and antithesis. The way that King conducted his speech adds to the comprehension a nd gives the effect that he wants to rise above the injusticesRead MoreFree Speech Is The Cornerstone Of The American Freedom1719 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe American lifestyle has always included the freedom to speak freely. This freedom, granted by the 1st amendment, can be viewed as the cornerstone of the American freedom since without it most of the other freedoms Americans enjoy become less useful or even obsolete. The issue that many find with free speech however is that everyone must have it even if that person holds an opposing opinion. This mutual respect is the foundation for civil discussions and debates that shape the country and evenRead MoreFreedom Of Speech By John Locke Essay1325 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFreedom of speech is the right given to all United States citizens to express their opinions openly, without having to fear legal punishment. However, the idea of this freedom goes back far before the United States was even declared an independent country. In the 16th cen tury, European thinkers such as John Locke began to discuss freedom of speech as a basic human right, a necessity for a free and thriving society and a well governed country. In the United States, freedom of speech is split intoRead MoreQuarantine Speech And The Four Freedoms1481 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesI believe that FDRs Quarantine Speech and The Four FreedomsÃ¢â¬ encouraged all the American people to support participating in World War II to preserve peace, democracy and morality, while Rockwells paintings encouraged buying war bonds by speaking to the wealthy middle to upper-class white Americans to preserve their liberties and basic rights. In both Quarantine Speech and The Four Freedoms speeches, FDR speaks repeatedly of freedom and peace being threatened and how the war must be realisticallyRead MorePolicy Proposal: Restriction to Freedom of Speech Clause965 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPolicy Proposal Restriction to Freedom of Speech Clause The Restriction to Freedom of Speech Clause would add the following to exceptions that are allowed to speech and expression under the First Amendment (see boldface text). Restrictions on freedom of speech are currently permitted to be imposed on Speech that incites illegal or subversive activity Fighting words Symbolic expression Commercial speech Freedom of expression in public schools Obscenity and pornography Regulation ofRead MoreThe I Have A Dream Speech By Martin Luther King Essay1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Ã¢â¬Å"I have a dreamÃ¢â¬ speech by Martin Luther King is recognised as one of the best speeches ever given. Here Stevie Edwards looks at what makes it so memorable. There is also YouTube clip of the Martin Luther King Speech More than 40 years ago, in August 1963, Martin Luther King electrified America with his momentous Ã¢â¬ËI Have A DreamÃ¢â¬â¢ speech, dramatically delivered from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. His soaring rhetoric demanding racial justice and an integrated society became a mantra forRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. s I Have A Dream 1448 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthan those uttered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.Ã¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"I have a dream,Ã¢â¬ speech. Perhaps one of the most famous and paradigm shifting speeches in all of history, Dr. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s was spoken with candor, authenticity, fervor, and an enormous amount of tact. With his incredible intelligence and eloquence as a doctorate in Theological Studies, his establishment as such a respected leader, and his fervor and charisma in delivering the speech, Dr. King effectively established Logos, Ethos and most importantly,Read MoreMartin Luther King Jr: I Have a Dream Speech Critique Essay1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesI HAVE A DREAM SPEECH CRITIQUE This speech took place on August 28, 1963 millions of citizens, children, law and policy makers attended while 250,000 watched on TV as a Baptist Preacher ,a Boston University Graduate Dr, Martin Luther King stood behind a podium. He established an immediate rapport with an ever changing audience and communicated on a meaningful level, by appealing to moral conscience of Americans standing on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. He gave the rhetorical demandsRead MoreCompare And Contrast The Gettysburg Address And I Have A Dream Speech1065 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPowerful Speeches Ã¢â¬Å"When we allow freedom to ring -when we let it ring from every city and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s children...will be able to join hands and singÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ This is the, slightly shortened, end quote of the famous I Have a Dream speech by. The Gettysburg address was a major turning point in American history for the topic of slavery. Martin Luther King Jrs I Have a Dream speech assisted in this Civil Rights movement
Monday, December 16, 2019
Some people think high school students should take a year to work or travel before going at university. Some people believe that students should work or travel for a year before going at university,in my opinion I totally agree. Experiencing the world of work expands the mind. We will write a custom essay sample on Some People Think High School Students or any similar topic only for you Order Now The experience will help us to see how the various aspects of college education relate to each other and to life outside of college. The richness of experience will powerfully inform your academic work. First I`ll talk about advantages and disadnvantages of one year working or travelling before going at university. There are a lot of advantages,but also there are some disadvantages. I think that we should work a certain period before going at university,because we`ll earn money to pay our education. Most of the student`s cant go at university because their parents are in bad financial situation. But If they work a certain period they`ll earn enough money for going at university also they`ll gain experience that will help them when they`ll decide to find a job. On the other hand they will learn how to live independently without assistance from parents, and how to face the challenges of life. Furthermore students could find out what they want in life, they could become single-minded, focused and motivated enough to achieve their aims. When they would start studying, they would be motivated to learn in order to attain the goals they have set, thus they will benefit from their travel experience. Another advantage of spending a year traveling between school and university is that students would be able to develop certain skills which will be very helpful for their further life. Students would learn to take responsibilities since they would be on their own in a foreign country where they would not be able to rely on others like they did at home. Whenever they would struggle with issues, they would have to solve the problems on their own; therefore the students would become more independent and aware of the fact that dealing with issues and solving them is a process of becoming an adult. Thus, their traveling experience would have a positive impact on their personality since the teenagers would be able to develop further personal skills by experiencing a lot, dealing with problems that they would normally not have at home and becoming more aware of their own abilities. A year of traveling would not only benefit the students by helping them developing their personal skills but would also help them improving their language skills. Students that do not speak the anguage of the country they are traveling to so well, would practice it and expand their treasury of words since they would spend a lot of time there and they would have to communicate in order to handle the necessities of every day life like for example shopping. Therefore they would improve their language skills and this could be very expedient for their further studies. Spending a year abroad brings along a good opportunity to meet other people and make new friends. Students would get to know people from different cultures, hence they would learn many interesting things about the culture of the country they have traveled to. If students traveled to a less developed country, they could be more aware of the differences between the respective country and their home country and would therefore appreciate what they have at home. Even though there are many positive aspects concerning spending a year in a foreign country after finishing school, there also are some negative points that I want to clarify. Some students might decide for such an experience but they could soon find out that the decision they have taken was not an appropriate one. They could figure out that they have done the wrong choice since they would not be able to deal with all the issues they encounter there, so they would not only waste money in vain, but also precious time. Some teenagers would not be able to cope with such issues as responsibility and independence because they would need help and could not do it on their own, therefore they could not bear a whole year abroad if they traveled to a foreign country. Another disadvantage of spending a year abroad is the possibility of losing contact with friends at home. Since the teenagers who decide to take a break from school and do not continue their studies are spending a year away from home and from their friends, they could easily neglect their friends by not calling or writing them often enough. When the students would return home, their friends might have moved on with their lives and could have found other friends since they would have already started their university life. A year abroad could also be dangerous if students chose to travel to a less developed country where crime is the order of the day. The teenagers could betake themselves in dangerous situations and could, if the worst comes to the worst, get hurt. Another negative aspect concerning spending a year in a foreign country before going to university is the fact that the students could forget a lot of academic subjects such as mathematics and natural sciences. This could be a disadvantage for the students who want to continue their studies in this direction. Furthermore students could come out of their learning rhythm and this would probably cause difficulties when they would go to university since they would have to do their best from the start and would have to compete with other students who did not take a break from school but continued studying. All in all, one can draw the conclusion that spending a year traveling after finishing school, may have its positive sides, since students can develop their personal skills and experience a lot of helpful things that can shape up as very useful for their future. Nevertheless the decision to spend a year abroad should be elaborated since it may not fit to everybody and it may turn out to be a wrong idea. Therefore I hold the opinion that everyone who contemplates to make such an experience should really try to find out if it is the right thing for her/him to do. How to cite Some People Think High School Students, Essay examples
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Music in Renaissance Period Essay Introduction Renaissance, literally, means rebirth; it is an era that began in sasss and ended in 1600 and its school of thought dramatically shifted from religious and mystical ideals to a focus to human interactions. It is worthy and important to understand the changes from the transition of musical period, because they mark and shape the music industry that stands now. For instance, opera was in its infancy when Gigolo Canine (1551-1681) started writing the first opera and now operas can be found in all around the world and in different cultures. There are tremendous aspects to talk bout of the transition from Medieval to Renaissance period, however this essay will only limit itself on the changes in vocal composition, and the historical events that might lead to such changes. Four aspects will be mainly focused on change in style of vocal composition, reasons of increased secular composition, invention of new text types and what the biggest motivation behind all changes. Change in style of vocal composition When talking about the liturgical music from medieval period, one can easily associate to plainchant or more specific Gregorian chant. Gregorian Chant usually ivies us a single and narrow ranged of sacred melody and is perceived as the voice of church in that period. Then, polyphony was evolved around twelfth century. Organ (earliest polyphony) involved of adding a faster melody on top of a plainchant. It is rather easy to identify medieval music from Renaissance music, since Renaissance music is relatively richer and fuller. The texture is mostly polyphonic; however could be also homophobic with successions of chords. The bass register was used for the first time, this allows an expansion of pitch range at the same time usually provides a strong and full accompanies when play with the higher voices. Renaissance choral music study: Jonquils Eave Maria Polyphonic imitation is a technique that best represents the typical style of renaissance vocal composition. The idea is that a short melody is presented by one voice and the other voices imitate the same thing but with delays, thus is similar to an echo of the first melody. This technique of overlapping provides the sense of continuity; and also as all the melodic lines were conceived at the same time instead of being conceived line by line in the renaissance period, the harmonic effect is more ICC and pleasant to hear. One of a great example of polyphonic imitation is the four-voice motet by Joaquin Desired (1440-1521). Being one of the most important composers in the renaissance period, Joaquin pioneered the pervasive imitation (a. K. A polyphonic imitation) as a contrapuntal device. His influence to the Western musical history is well recognized because pervasive imitation has became the ancestor of modern fugue (later in composition. ) Eave Maria Virgo serene (1502) is a work by Joaquin that may best illustrate the technique of pervasion imitation. Eave Maria is a chapel that is choral music in the renaissance period that did not need instrumental accompaniment. Yet, some a chapel used instrument to duplicate the vocal lines in order to support and reinforce the singers if they find it hard to maintain on the right pitches. At the opening pervasion imitation is used, soprano sings the single phrase Eave Maria and each voice sings the same melody in succession. In addition to imitation in different voices, it also occurs between pairs of voices. For instance, soprano and alto come into duet in the phrase Eave, cuss conception, while the two lower voices imitate in succession. In the phrase Virgo serene, all voices sing together creating a feeling to completeness to the first verse. Harlem Renaissance Poetry EssayBallet is a danceable song for several solo voices; also following the ideal of the Camera ballet was mostly homophobic in texture with the melody in the highest voice. Before renaissance, instrumental music were Just accompaniment to vocal sounds. However, during the sixteenth century, more music was specifically written for instruments. Besides organ, harpsichord and clavichord both evolved in the fifteenth century. There was also a more organized grouping for instrument in terms of their volumes. They were two groups, altar capable and bass capable meaning loud and soft ensembles. Altar capable that is the loud ensembles included shams, pipes and even percussion. While bass capable included harp, lute and other plucked string. The secret driving force There was a new ideal that was driving all those changes from medieval to incessant music the Humanism. During the medieval period, music was often a way to seek for a more intimate relationship with God. Yet, the renaissance ideals shifted from God-centric to human-centric, the will and interactions of human were more emphasized. The loss of power of the Catholic Church was originated to the psychological change of Man. Peoples wills were no long being controlled by the authority, instead they were dare to question about the fidelity of the doctrine. The rise of secular music was another sign for the new renaissance ideal. Secular music brought entertainment to the incessant era; people could play secular music in weddings and on the street. This kind of entertainment was fulfilling to people in those times, and people were willing to engage to this activity that made them feel pleasant. Conclusion The transition of the music in medieval period to renaissance period was indeed very spectacular. The literal meaning of the word renaissance best illustrated the state of the music from medieval period rebirth. The change in vocal composition might be the most obvious change of all. The expansion of range, enriched tone color and the use of new technique had brought music to another level; the music in incessant was more challenging but more interesting to play with. Due to the reformation of new churches, and the invention of printing, he amount of secular composition being produced had also increased in this era. New music text types had also been explored; the most important of all madrigal had promoted the growth of opera in later years, ballet and also instrumental music. Yet, among all those change in style of music, or the political adjustments, the most powerful driving force behind the changes was the philosophy of humanism that was floating in the air; the ideals of it had allowed people to emphasize more on human-centered aspects like free will and entertainments.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Red Badge of CourageStephen Crane HarcourtNew York 1960206 p. I. Storyline 1. Henry Fleming, a farmer and a nobody, wanted to become a hero in war and have girls loving him for his glorious achievements in battle. So Henry decides to join the Union army, during the Civil War. He knew his mother would not like to see him go to war, but it was his decision to make. So he enlists in the Union army. H makes friends with two other soldiers, John Wilson and Jim Conklin. Wilson was as exited about going to war as Henry, while Jim was confident about the success of the new regiment. Henry started to realize after a few days of marching, that their regiment was just wandering aimlessly, going in circles, like a vast blue demonstration. He started to become afraid that he might run from battle when duty calls. When the regiment finally discovers a battle taking place, Jim gives Henry a little packet in a yellow envelope, telling Henry that his will be his first and last battle. The regiment managed to hold off the rebels for the first charge, but then the rebels came back with reenforcements, driving the regiment back. One man started to flee, then another, and another still. Henry was scared, confused, and in a trance as he saw his forces shrinking. He finally got up and started running like a chicken. In the charge ahead, Henry starts asking the soldiers why they are running. He grabbed a comrade by the arm and asked the man "why" not letting go of the mans arm, so the man hit Henry over the head with the butt of his rifle, giving Henry his first Red Badge of Courage. At his regiment he confronts Wilson. After a short rest he again gets back into battle. After the regiment lost that battle, the generals had the regiment marching again. Henry begins to feel that, he and Wilson, are going to die, but goes to battle anyway He was not going to be badgered of his life.. In yet another battle, when Henry and Wilson get a chance to carry their flag, they fight over who will retain the flag. Wilson got the regiment flag, though later in battle Henry manages to obtain the rebel flag. And from there, runs to the front of the line with the Lieutenant, leading the way. 2. Their regiment keeps getting moved back and our losing the battle. But even worse, their men are running away. 3. After they rest, henry and Wilson motivate the regiment enough for them to win the last battle as they lead the regiment with their flag. 4. Henry Fleming, Jim Conklin and John Wilson 5. It is told in 1st person. 6. The battle scenes are hilly, grassy, and many trees around. Most of the battlefields where taken place in Virginia. 7. 1895 8. Of course the Civil War. 9. Slavery and war debts. II. Henry is a hero, which was his dream. He helped the regiment win the battle and motivated them so they would have more moral.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Mussolini essays MussoliniÃ ¡s full name was Benito Mussolini. He was born in the town of Varnano dei Costa near the village of Predappio near Forli in the Romagna. MussoliniÃ ¡s mother, Rosa Maltoni, was married to a blacksmith by the name of Alessandro Mussolini. He named his son Benito after the Mexican hero and patriot, Benito Juarez. He was born on Sunday, July 29 (1983) and died in the year 1945. When he was a child, Mussolini was know for his vanity and his quick temper. He was taught and educated in public schools and earned his diploma in 1901. With his diploma, the chances of him finding a job were inadequate and that made him move to Switzerland. While he was abroad, he studied the arts of socialists like Karl Marx(Marxism) which inspired him to become involved in socialist groups. His study of Marxism and the arts of socialists helped develop his political skills. He returned to Italy in 1904, with his techniques and his talents of journalism and dictatorship, he was able to advance in socialist circles in Italy. He was arrested in 1911for leading protests aginst the invasion of Libya After receiving this position in the paper, his pieces of work acted as 'scathing polemicsÃ ¡ against the Italian liberal government and the main opposition, the socialist reformists. In my opinion, even though is actions were against the liberal government and the fact that he was protesting against the invasion of Libya, he might have been a socialist on the outside, but a nationalist on the inside. The outbreak of the first world war was his official end with socialism. Italy entered the war in 1915 and Mussolini was dragged into it as well. In February 1917, he was badly injured when a grenade launcher he was firing exploded. The time he spent in the army and during his injury made him a more assured nationalist and that was the end of his socialist ways. After the end of the war, his sympathies lay with the countryÃ ¡s many war veterans and with t...
Friday, November 22, 2019
Free Essay Editing Free Essay Editing Free Essay Editing: Do not Neglect the Important! What are your actions when you have got an assignment to write a free essay? What do you concentrate your attention on? When getting an assignment to write an academic paper a student usually spends all his/her efforts and time of course at preparing for his/her writing and making this paper. The matter is that most students consider the task of writing any assignment paper as the process involving gathering of all necessary information (preparation stage) and making of the first as well as the final paper drafts (writing in itself). But what about editing? Unfortunately, just few students pay enough attention to this stage. However, it plays an important role in successful writing of any academic paper. In what way should you edit your assignment free essay? What principles of free essay editing should you keep in mind? Free essay editing: important points Lets focus on the most important things concerning free essay editing: First and foremost, you should remember that free essay editingis an important stage in your assignment essay writing. Although it is the last stage, you should not neglect it. So, edit your free essay carefully before submit it. Free essay editingsuggests attentive reading of the final paper draft and correcting of all possible mistakes that it may have. To find these mistakes you should read your free essay twice at least. Do not hurry! Concentrate on your paper. Nothing should divert your attention. Make use of dictionaries and manuals. They will help you make your spelling, grammar and punctuation correct. Pay attention to the contents as well. You may have missed some words or even phrases. This may misrepresent your ideas and make your free essay difficult to understand. You should also correct such mistakes. Free essay editinginvolves also checking of the paper format. Your free essay should be organized properly. So, if you find out that your paper format does not correspond to the requirements anyhow, you should make some changes. That is what you should keep in mind when getting down to your free essay editing. Help with free essay editing If you are not sure about your ability to make good free essay editing, contact us! We help students not only in writing but also in editing of their assignment papers. We will edit your free essay and you may not worry about its quality. Read also: How to Write a Book Report Essays on Patriotism Critique Essay Write Critical Success Factor Analysis Critical Literary Essay
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Internet Marketing Strategy - Case Study Example LVMH thus controlled a portfolio of 50 luxury brands and is the number one worldwide seller of champagne, cognac, fashion and leather goods and number three worldwide seller of perfumes and cosmetics. The company's revenues topped $10 billion in 2000. The growth of the internet has been a challenge in marketing for traditional companies as Louis Vuitton. Since internet is an egalitarian medium of retailing, Luis Vuitton which caters for the luxury customer did not view it as a brand multiplier in the initial stages, it has gradually developed its web presence over the years. There is however adequate scope for enhancement of internet marketing and branding by Luis Vuitton. Internet marketing strategies are build around segmentation, targeting and positioning(STP). A company utilising the web site as a tool for marketing has to take STP into account. (Tanahashi: 2001). Segmentation is carried out to identify the most suitable target market and position the brand to attain competitive edge. Simultaneously the customer's needs and expectations can be easily researched on the internet. Differentation with rivals, an essential marketing parameter can also be easily accomplished. (Tanahashi : 2001). Another issue is differentiation within the market, its level of maturity and customer segmentation based on the innovator theory. The innovator theory determines that every market has different levels of customers. A miniscule 2.5 percent are said to be innovators or those who will seek a new product for its novelty. These are followed by opinion leaders or early adapters (13.5%), early majority (34%), late majority (34%), and laggards or late adapters (16%). ( Rogers : 2002). The internet provides easy tools to assess the size of each segment. Internet marketing strategy also entails facets such as key word search. Customers are homing onto products on the web by keying in product identity. Search engines facilitate location of the best or most sought after product. There is a necessity to see how key word search results can provide market visibility to the product. For brand measurement on line, it is also necessary to understand why a particular product is not bought. This implies measurement of the clients product outside the conversion rate, which is possible on the internet. Thus click through and conversion rates can be achieved through better branding.(Key Word Search Marketing : 2005). Internet Marketing is carried out by using advertising banners, pay per click advertising, e mail marketing strategies, search engine optimization articles, blog marketing and business strategy to connect with a large number of customers simultaneously without the need for physical presence. Web marketing involves focusing and indivi dualizing advertising campaigns by using superior information available to market analysts through the internet. (Internet Marketing: 2005). Speed is of essence in internet marketing and it allows new products and services to reach the user within minutes if required. The key to effective internet marketing is ensuring the basics. The fundamentals entail assessing the needs of the consumer and providing these requirements as quickly as possible. This would
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Utilizing Work Performance Habits Effectively - Essay Example The concept of organizational behavior refers to the study of how individuals within a business environment interact with both the business and its policies as well as other members of the professional staff. The characteristics of group behavior are somewhat complex with the idea that behavior deals with psychological issues as well as maintaining a professional decorum by those who represent a company. During the course of group affiliation, there will inevitably be conflict as different individuals perceive relationships and organizational policies on a different level. The key attributes of those employees who can effectively manage and thrive within group dynamics are the ability to negotiate a conflict resolution and establish effective methods of communication. This author will describe three specific tools for professional success in detail. Ã Leadership within a business does not necessarily reflect only the most senior-level administration. In terms of setting the pace of proper organizational behaviors, even the non-managerial staff can create a positive environment for co-workers. With this authors goal of sustaining a managerial role, I can effectively offer methods to enhance my performance at work by setting the example of professionalism. First, once the strategic direction for the workplace has been established, it is the role of leadership to ensure that the entire staff is unified and maintains a sense of direction. Executing goals is nothing but aligning people, motivating them, and creating a culture of leadership (Padgaonkar, 2006).
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Robert McNamara Essay As Defense Secretary of two administrations, the Johnson and Kennedy administrations, respectively, Robert McNamara played a great role in shaping US policies that led to the decision to intervene in the Vietnam War. Prior to his role in the Vietnam War, he was already involved in various roles in some of the most major decisions concerning nuclear weapons and delivery system. Such experience would have been useful for him to determine that going to war in Vietnam was a huge mistake and would end up catastrophically for the Americans. However, he certainly mistook Ho Chi MinhÃ¢â¬â¢s nationalist drive to unite Vietnam as the challenge of a monolithic Communist work and this proved to be fatal not only to the United States but to Vietnam as well as both camps suffered heavy losses not only in terms of lives but in terms of financial sources as well. But to his credit, he was the only with that kind of status who accepted responsibility for the Vietnam debacle which cost the United States thousands of military servicemen and millions of Vietnamese lives. Despite his belief that the war should have been ended even in the middle of it, McNamara remained Ã¢â¬Å"loyalÃ¢â¬ to the President. Hence, even if his views were altogether different from the other key players in the Vietnam war, he did not act responsibly toward the American people as he instead kept his silence rather than challenging Johnson and his cabinet and quitting mid-war. His excessive faith in high-tech weapons and later expectations that massive bombing and frontal battles could wear down the Vietnamese enemy certainly added to his accountability. Moreover, even with the increasing withdrawal of support and criticism of the Vietnam War, McNamara fastidiously held on to his silence and this might have resulted in creating the tone of ideological bitterness that now pervades U. S. politics, Bill Schneider, a contributing editor to Opinion, CNN, Los Angeles Times (p. 134). This can be seen by the evident gap or estrangement between the governing class and the people which is symbolized by the draft issue employed by the military. The number of Americans who believe the Vietnam War was a mistake has steadily risen in the years since. Its in the range of 80% now, said John Mueller of the University of Rochester in New York, an expert on public opinion on foreign policy and war. [Doyle McManus, Los Angeles Times opinion (p. 118). ] McNamara should not have kept his silence. As Vann puts it, Ã¢â¬Å"he saw much that was wrong about the war in Vietnam, but he could never bring himself to conclude that the war itself was wrong and unwinnable (p. 8). In fairness to McNamara however, he strongly opposed further bombing of North Vietnam and major deployment of a major ABM system which upset the military chiefs at that time. However, his resignation came in too late, when Johnson was already gunning for a re-election. He could have voiced out his objection when the odds are still with him and as Frank Rich succinctly puts it, Ã¢â¬Å"the real wisdom he might finally have attained a recognition that he was wrong not to announce his mid-war about-face and quit the Johnson Cabinet when lives might still have been saved eludes himÃ¢â¬ . Frank Rich, New York Times opinion (p. 126).
Thursday, November 14, 2019
The way I view the world has been greatly affected by my reading this semester. Thought I had read Emerson and Melville before, I never before was able to sound the depths of their work and fully appreciate it. This semester was my first real exposure to Whitman, as well. The best analogy for my new outlook is an image of the universe as a yin-yang; it is a complete, unbroken whole within which two polar opposites are constantly in conflict. But more significantly I have taken to heart the doctrine of "Self-Reliance," which is one shared by all three authors. Emerson presents a different system of learning than I had ever encountered. Throughout my previous education, I was taught to learn whatever was in the book. The only place original thought was accepted was in occasional creative writing assignments, and even then a stylistic formula was required. The sentence from "Self-Reliance," "A man should learn to detect and watch that gleam of light which flashes across his mind from within, more than the lustre of the firmament of bards and sages." was a completely new idea to me. My mind originally dismissed the concept from his journals that "The dead sleep in their moonless night; my business is with the living. . . ." But on further reflection, it made sense. Self-reliance is an intimidating concept. Students are taught to externally justify any position we take. If we make a thesis statement we must find support for it in the crumbling stacks of the library. Yet in the end I have found that self-reliance is the most satisfying way t o grapple with life. Melville frequently supports these ideas in his writing. When Ishmael encounters the whale skeleton that a tribe of islanders have elevated to the status of a god, he demonstrates the gravity one should grant to others' ideas of religion: "Cutting me a green measuring-rod, I once more dived within the skeleton. From their arrow-slit in the skull, the priests perceived me taking the altitude of the final rib. 'How now!' they shouted; 'Dar'st thou measure this our god! That's for us.' 'Aye, priestsÃ¢â¬âwell, how long do ye make him, then?' But hereupon a fierce contest rose among them, concerning feet and inches; they cracked each other's sconces with their yard-sticksÃ¢â¬âthe great skull echoedÃ¢â¬âand seizing that lucky chance, I quickly concluded my own admeasurements.
Monday, November 11, 2019
December 9, 2010 Reflection on Pope John Paul II movie I found the movie Pope John Paul II very interesting and spiritually moving. God tells us in the bible that following him is not free of tribulation. He comforts by telling us he will not put anything against us that we cannot overcome. Sacrifice is one the key ingredients that comes with following the Lord. Pope John Paul II is a wonderful role model to follow when it comes to sacrifice. When the Nazis were trying to put an end to religion Karol was busy studying Gods word. By doing this, he is willing to sacrificing his life, because if he was caught he would be killed.He spent much of his younger years with friends, teaching them about human dignity and God. Before his Cardinal Years Karol sacrificed having a wife and children so that he could follow his passion for the Catholic religion and become a priest. After many years he was elected Cardinal and then Pope of Poland. Another moral issue in this film is the commitment of many mortal sins. Murder is the main sin seen throughout the movie. The NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s wanted the polish to be miserable and gave them little freedom. If anyone was found rebelling against their strict laws they would be beaten and killed.This sin is repeated numerous times a day, and in great numbers. Even after the war died down murder wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t over. This is seen When Pope John Paul II life was unexpectedly put in danger when someone shot at him while he was making an appearance in public. Pope John Paul II fought for his life and continued to try and bring peace among people. All in all this movie is a wonderful example of what it means to follow Christianity. Pope John Paul II is a delightful man who brought a sense of comfort with him when speaking to the people. I found this movie very enjoyable and would recommend it to many people.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Interpersonal conflict within any relationship is normal but must be carefully resolved so that long term damage doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t occur. In the movie, Ã¢â¬Å"HitchÃ¢â¬ there was a few interpersonal conflicts that erupted. According to Sole, Ã¢â¬Å"The way in which each person deals with conflict varies based on experience, personality, and communication style. Often we do not know how we will deal with a particular circumstance until it occurs (Sole, 2011).Ã¢â¬ This particular film was not shy of conflict; this paper will include ways on how the interpersonal conflict could have been resolved. One of the main interpersonal conflicts in the film was dishonesty of the main character. He was a guy who gets hired by people to hook them up together. He basically coaches and trains them on how to be more desirable. He does a full make over from their appearance to what initially comes out of their mouth. The conflict started when the main character took on a new client who was desperat e to date this woman who was like a mogul in her field. The new client was not the best at establishing relationships with people especially when it came to love interest. According to Sole, Ã¢â¬Å"The parties in an interpersonal relationship also have consistent patterns of interacting and communicating with each other, and these patterns are unique to that relationship (Sole, 2011).Ã¢â¬ The main characters interpersonal conflict emerged when he engaged in a relationship with a woman that he was attracted to. The woman had later on found out the type of work that he was involved in and she felt that it was misleading to people. She felt that their whole relationship was based on lies. According to Sole Ã¢â¬Å"Conflict can be dangerous because it has a tendency to grow and worsen, but it can also have important benefits that can strengthen a relationship and might even be desirable (Sole, 2011).Ã¢â¬ The main characters client did end up with his significant other but the main character lost his love interest for a short period of time. According to Sole, Ã¢â¬Å"Researchers have found that serious relationship problems arise when those in the rela tionship are unable to reach beyond the immediate conflict and include positive as well as negative emotions in their discussions (Sole, 2011).Ã¢â¬ In this particular movie the characters were using aggressive communication as a means of getting their points across. This could very well be relationship suicide. They shouldÃ utilize a more assertive way of communicating to each other. While they were arguing they should have found a way to lighten the argument. According to Sole, Ã¢â¬Å"In happy marriages, instead of always responding to anger with anger, the couples found a way to lighten the tension and to de-escalate the conflict (Sole 2011).Ã¢â¬ When it comes to interpersonal conflict all is not lost because of the fact that it could be a healthy factor for any relationship. According to Sole, Ã¢â¬Å"some conflict may actually be good for a marriage over time and can lead to the personal growth of both partiesÃ¢â¬âif the negative communication is aimed at the other personÃ¢â¬â¢s specific behavior and not at the whole person (Sole, 2011).Ã¢â¬ This is basically pointing out the actions that an individual took or di dnÃ¢â¬â¢t take. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s similar to how you deal with a child thatÃ¢â¬â¢s misbehaving. For an example you tell the child that their actions were bad and not that they are bad. When you take this type of approach you can salvage a relationship and not affect anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem. In the long term they will understand how to avoid the same conflict in the future. References: Sole, K. (2011).Making connections: Understanding interpersonal communication. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Guide How to Write a Response Essay Know-How What is a Response Essay College and university students are required to write different types of writing assignments, and one of them is a response essay. A response essay, which can also be referred to as a reaction essay, is unique by its nature and differs from an ordinary review. Unlike many traditional academic papers, a response essay is usually rather informal as it is written in the first person. This type of writing assignments is focused on revealing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal point of view regarding a movie, a piece of music, a speech, or any kind of written work. While a response paper represents a personal reaction to a particular work, you still have to develop a strong thesis and follow it throughout the whole paper by supporting your opinions with the evidence from this work. Requirements for a Response Essay If you need to write a response essay, you should consider its special requirements and other peculiarities, which strongly depend on the work you need to respond to. When developing a response essay, you should closely assess the work and focus on your personal reaction to it. At the same time, you may need to summarize the key points of this work to make your response easier to understand. The most important requirement for a response paper is that you should state your position. It means that you can criticize the work, agree or disagree with its main ideas, reflect on the feelings and thoughts that this work evokes, emphasize its strengths and weaknesses, or present your impressions in some other form. Also, like for any other writing assignment, the basic requirements for a response essay may include avoiding plagiarism, citing the sources, and adhering to a particular formatting style and structure. A popular form of a response essay is a response to another personÃ¢â¬â¢s essay or post. If you respond to your classmate or groupmateÃ¢â¬â¢s post, the basic requirements can be a bit different. For instance, you have to address them by their name and either agree or disagree with their opinions. Also, you have to indicate both the strongest and the weakest parts of the post and suggest what can be improved. Finally, such a response usually poses some helpful open-ended questions to continue the discussion. At the same time, in this case, you are also required to back up your personal point of view with some relevant evidence and be precise in your evaluation. Topics for a Response Essay: Fresh Ideas from Our Writers Usually, a topic for a response essay depends on the work you analyze. Most typically, it is related to something you study in the class, and in this case, the topic for your response essay is obvious. Besides that, the topic, or even a list of topics, can be developed by your professor. In this case, all you need to do is to choose the one that seems the most relevant and appealing to you. However, if you are free to choose any topic you want and have to develop it by yourself, you should follow some recommendations. First of all, the topic should be interesting and appealing to you. In this case, it will be easier to complete the assignment. Also, as you are required to express personal opinion in your response, it can be helpful to use the topic you have some background knowledge about. You should understand that it is impossible to write an effective response essay without closely examining the work you respond to. Thus, when choosing a topic, it is easier to dedicate your response to something that you have already watched or read and refresh it in your memory by reviewing if you have enough time. Developing a topic for your response essay can be easy once you have chosen the work you are going to analyze. However, in certain cases, when the response deals with only certain aspects of the work, it can be more effective to identify these aspects in the topic. Here are some examples that may give you an idea of what to write about: A Response to the Film I Have Seen Recently; A Closer Look at Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe; Oliver Twist as a Social Satire; Assumptions about Gender Roles as Seen in Disney Movies; A Response to Winston ChurchillÃ¢â¬â¢s Most Influential Speech; Analysis of a Piece of Art That Impresses Me; My Response to the Poem The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe; My Assessment of Romeo and Juliet in Contrast with the Modern-day Realities. Pre-writing Tips When the topic is chosen, you can start working on the material. However, before starting to write a response essay, you should take several steps to make the writing process easier and more effective. It is typical for completing a writing assignment to spend much time on the pre-writing activities. This preparation phase will help you gather your thoughts and concentrate on the topic while ensuring cohesion and logical structure of your paper. Here are some pre-writing tips that will be helpful for writing a response essay: Observe/read the work. In order to write a response essay, you should first closely examine or read the work you are going to analyze and interpret. It will give you the initial understanding of the material and will help you decide on the thesis of your response essay. While reading a written work, watching a movie, or observing any other form of art, you may need to record your thoughts and take field notes on what you feel, what impresses you, and what is worth mentioning. Develop a thesis. Based on the notes and thoughts, you have to develop a strong and arguable thesis that will help you organize your essay and concentrate on particular aspects of the work you respond to. Develop an outline. To build a response essay logically and systematically, you have to develop an outline. It will identify the key parts of your paper and the main arguments and opinions presented in it. Search for the sources. If you are required to use outside sources in your response, you have to search for them before you start writing. You should remember that all the sources should be credible and use only reliable information. The sources can help you decide on the main focuses of your paper. Also, they can provide important background information on the work you respond to, which will be useful for assessing it in a broader context. Points to Consider While Writing a Response Essay There are some useful questions you can ask yourself to organize your writing process and focus on the aspects you want to explore the most. Usually, when a student is required to write a response essay, this assignment is somehow connected to the topic discussed during the class or to the course or discipline at large. That is why the first question you should ask yourself is how the work you analyze is connected with the main aspects and ideas of this topic or course. The same question is effective if you are writing a response to your classmateÃ¢â¬â¢s post. In this case, you can ask yourself in what way the issue discussed by your classmate is related to the topic of your class and how you can enhance its understanding by adding your thoughts to the discussion. Obviously, it is not less important to understand the connections of the analyzed work with contemporary realities. In order to explore this aspect in your response, you have to address the question of how the work relates to the existing issues of modern society. As it has already been mentioned, the main purpose of a response essay is to express oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal opinion concerning a particular work. It is apparent that this point of view is based on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal experiences, ideas, and life principles. That is why it can be useful to investigate how exactly your personal life experience resonates with the ideas expressed in the work you have to analyze. In particular, you can think of the emotions the work evokes in you and the impressions it imposes on you. Another important question that you need to put is whether the work has enhanced your personal knowledge and understanding of a certain issue or phenomenon. If the work somehow changes your vision of this issue or alters your perspective, you should state it in your response essay. Finally, you should give an evaluation of the work you analyze. More precisely, you should consider the workÃ¢â¬â¢s organization, persuasiveness, accuracy, relevance, and practical meaning. Besides, you can evaluate the overall contribution of this work to the development of culture, sciences, or other spheres. With regard to that, you can also ask yourself if you will recommend the work to others. Such an evaluation is particularly significant when you write a response to your classmateÃ¢â¬â¢s post. In this case, the evaluation can present grounding for further improvement and investigation. The Structure of a Splendid Response Essay While writing a response essay, you should follow all the professorÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements concerning its structure. Typically, a response paper consists of an introduction, several body paragraphs, and a conclusion. If you use outside sources in your work, you should also include a reference page. All the ideas and arguments of your response essay should be presented logically and follow the thesis. Introduction Usually, the first sentence of the introduction should include the title and the author of the work you analyze. Also, your introduction can contain some background information about this work, the author, or the problem it explores. If it is needed, you can briefly summarize the key facts of the work you respond to. In general, the introduction should be short and accurate to attract the readers and draw attention to the issues you are going to discuss. Thesis The thesis statement is particularly important for an effective response essay. It should reflect your personal point of view on the work you analyze and combine all the main ideas that you are going to express later in the body paragraphs. It should state your position clearly and persuasively. The thesis statement is usually the last sentence of the introduction. All the following body paragraphs should be related to the thesis and develop it through the use of particular arguments and examples from the work. Body Paragraphs Each body paragraph of your response paper should concentrate on a separate idea or aspect. All the ideas expressed in the response paper should be consistent with the thesis statement. Besides, all your personal opinions should be supported by the evidence from the work you analyze or from outside sources. If you respond to your classmate or groupmateÃ¢â¬â¢s post, your body paragraphs can highlight the strong and weak parts of this post with references, the grounding for your agreement or disagreement on the original writerÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, your recommendations for improvements and further investigations, and questions that arise while reading the post. Conclusion In the conclusion, you should restate the idea expressed in the thesis statement. In this part of your paper, you can summarize the key points of your response and connect them together. It is particularly important not to include anything that was not stated in the essay before. Post-writing Response Essay Tips You should never forget about the post-writing stage of developing a writing assignment as it is especially significant in the writing process at large. During this stage, you have to be ready to make changes as it can considerably improve your paper. The main activities associated with the post-writing stage are revising and editing. Revising. Even if it seems to you that your response essay is perfect, you have to look through it once more and revise it if needed. First of all, you have to check if you have followed all the professorÃ¢â¬â¢s instructions concerning the format, structure, word count, and content of your paper. After that, you may need to look through the work you plan to respond to once more to catch the details that were left unnoticed after the first time. Then you have to fix all the ideas, arguments, and examples mentioned in your paper so that they are presented clearly, logically, and persuasively. You should not be afraid of changing anything in your paper. The first draft is rarely the final draft, and it is normal to add or change some information, even if it makes the paper completely different to what you have expected in the beginning. Editing. The process of editing is not less important than revising. It mainly concerns checking your paper on grammatical and stylistic mistakes. To fix the paper, you have to read it carefully and check the word choice, spelling, punctuation, and the use of grammar. For this purpose, you can also use special online programs that can provide you with the correct variants and synonymous words, phrases, and structures. Besides, you should double-check all the sentences that are too long or seem awkward and try to change them. Also, even though a response paper implies the expression of personal opinion, it is important to check once more if the style of your paper is not too informal. References Fleming, G. (2018, December 23). Write an Effective Response Paper With These Tips. Retrieved February 5, 2019, from https://www.thoughtco.com/how-to-write-a-response-paper-1857017 Guidelines for Responding to Your Classmates Writing. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2019, from https://www.albany.edu/faculty/rpy95/eng303/response.html Kearney, V. (2018, October 19). How to Write a Reading Response Essay. Retrieved February 5, 2019, from https://owlcation.com/academia/How-to-Write-a-Reading-Response-Essay Learn How to Write a Response Paper : Guides A Research Guide. (2018, July 06). Retrieved February 5, 2019, from https://www.aresearchguide.com/write-a-response-paper.html Writing a Response or Reaction Paper (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2019, from hunter.cuny.edu/rwc/handouts/the-writing-process-1/invention/Writing-a-Response-or-Reaction-Paper
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Arab Americans in Southwest Michigan - Research Paper Example A unique dynamic of the majority of these first Arab American immigrants was the fact that they were almost invariably single males who, disillusioned with the prospects that their native land could offer them, struck out to find new opportunities in the United States in elsewhere as a means of building their life.1 Rather than settling in the major cities such as Chicago, Detroit, or New York city exclusively, such as so many immigrants before them had done, a large percentage of these young men set out across the Mid-West seeking to earn a living as traveling/itinerant salesmen.2 Although it is of course unfair to categorize an entire population by the actions of a few, it is fair to say that those individuals who engaged in such a line of work found themselves to be quite prosperous; so much so that many of them went back into the cities and opening small stores and shops of their own. It was at this juncture that the idea and actuality of an Arab community within southwestern Mic higan began to develop. Similarly, as the community began to grow and develop, a more nuanced and diverse array of Arab American immigrants began to add their own particular touches to this community. However, such is not to say that the transition that these individuals experienced towards acceptance within the communities they resided was an easy one not marked by hardship, racism, and prejudice. As the numbers of immigrants entering Michigan and elsewhere as a result of what has come to be known as Ã¢â¬Å"the Great MigrationÃ¢â¬ increased, so too did the resistance among the native population to their presence. As with many such stories of assimilation and immigration, the native population believed that the influx of immigrants based on the belief that these individuals were antithetical to the Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanÃ¢â¬ way of life and held worldviews, religious beliefs, and key cultural differences that would not blend well with
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Scholarship Essay Example To make matters worse, soon after my divorce, I had to move back in with my parents only to have to face a family tragedy. My parents died within 18 months of each other soon after. They left behind a sizable debt which I now have to contend with paying. All of these amount to me coming to my wits end. How will it be possible for me to continue with my life and honor my financial obligations if I do not have the kind of job that will allow me the kind of income to do so? After much soul searching, I finally found the answer. I decided to quit my job of nine years in order to save what I could of the little money that my parents left me to spend on pursuing the completion of my Business Administration degree. I felt like I had no choice but to resign from my job because it was not really serving its full purpose as a significant source of income for my family needs and financial obligations now that my parents were no longer around to help me out financially. Some people may say I am stupid for leaving a job that was paying me, even if it was only a pittance. But then again, holding on to that job was preventing me from retraining myself in order to achieve a higher goal. My full concentration is now set on completing my college degree and eventually pursuing an MBA. However, my finances are still quite strapped, which is why I have come to the Neal, Thomas James, and Lynnie Rice Neal Scholarship foundation for help. With a GPA of 3.75, I realize that I will be in a cut-throat competition with the other applicants. But the foundation will not be sorry if the scholarship is awarded to me. I know the value of a good education because I am the only member of my family to ever attend college. And I fully intend to use every opportunity that I can in order to achieve the greatness in life that I know I was meant for. All I am asking for, is a helping hand. I am hoping that your foundation will be one to give me the leg up that I need to get
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Risk Management in Brewin Dolphin Holdings plc - Essay Example According to the essay findings aÃ major chunk of its customers and their families have been with BDHP for generations together and this being a testimony for the high-quality services they offer. BDHP is having a unique business model which helps it to earn the confidence of its clients, and thereby it is able to establish long-run and loyal customer relationships. With the help of expertise of its professionally qualified advising staff, BDHP is able to make a personal approach in their client service. BDHP is having about 35 offices in UK, and its employee strength is around 1877 employees as of 31st December 2013. On behalf of its clients, BDHP is managing about Ã £28.2 billion of investments annually as of date. The market capitalisation of BDHP is Ã £728.94m and its net income in 2013 was Ã £33.59m and it is being one of the leading businesses in financial industry of UK.This study highlights thatÃ BDHP is able to maintain the vibrant client relationships with a long-run past performance of personalised services to its customers. BDHP visualises that it has a very good potential growth market with long-run future prospects. BDHP has reorganised its management team with infusion of clear aims and a strategy to accomplish them. BDHP main focus and strategy is that it will usher higher value for all of its stakeholders. BDHP is one of the largest personalised investment service providers in the UK, and they are in the management of portfolios on a discretionary and advisory basis.Ã Ã
Sunday, October 27, 2019
The Corruption Within Government Politics Essay It is essential to note from the outset that there is no single, comprehensive and universally accepted definition of corruption. It would be a long and awkward process to come up with a universally shared definition. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in the Global Programme against Corruption -UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit- briefly states that the difficulties encounter in formulating a common definition are due to legal, criminological and political problems . When the negotiations of the United Nations Convention against Corruption began in early 2002, one option under consideration was not to define corruption at all but to list specific types or acts of corruption. However, The World Bank and World Customs Organization (WCO) simply define corruption as the misuse of public power for private benefit , the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in its Anti-Corruption Practice Note, corruption is defined as the misuse of public power, office or authority for private benefit through bribery, extortion, influence peddling, nepotism, fraud, speed money or embezzlement . Law-Dictionary (http://www.law-dictionary.org) defines corruption as an act done with intent to give some advantage inconsistent with official duty and the rights of others. It includes bribery, but is more comprehensive; because an act may be corruptly done, though the advantage to be derived from it is not offered by another, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary: dishonest or illegal behavior, especially of people in authority  and Nye  defines corruption as behavior which deviates from the formal duties of a public role because of private-regarding (personal, close family, private clique) pecuniary or status gains; or violates rules against the exercise of certain types of private-regarding influence. In general, corruption is a complex social, political and economic phenomenon. Nowadays corruption is internationally recognized as a major problem in society, one capable of endangering the stability and security of societies, threatening social, economic and political development and undermining the values of democracy and morality. This holds true at both the domestic level and the international level. Indeed, with the growing globalization of markets of services, goods and people, accompanied by the internationalization of illegal activities, the international dimension of corruption gains in significance. As a result, reducing corruption becomes a priority at both the national and international levels; governmental and non-governmental organizations and requires concerted efforts, exchange of experience and a certain degree of standardization. Although it is true that countries differ in their anticorruption strategies, it is nowadays increasingly possible to cooperate and exchange information on successful practices. Also an international non-governmental organization such as Transparency International (TI) also developed as an international non-governmental organization fighting corruption and trying to raise public awareness of it. This includes, but is not limited to, political corruption. It publishes every year its Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), a comparative listing of corruption worldwide. The international headquarters is located in Berlin, Germany. The founder of the organization is Peter Eigen . World map of the 2007 Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) by Transparency International (TI), which measuresthe degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians to exist among public officials and politicians. High numbers which are in green indicates low perception of corruption, while the color red point out the higher perception of corruption. As a conclusion more than 70% of the world has corruption but it differs from country to another in the level of the corruption. Types and Forms of corruption The main forms of corruption are bribery, embezzlement, fraud and extortion. However, these forms can partly overlap and at times interchangeable with each other. Bribery is the payment (in money or kind) that is given or taken in a corrupt relationship. To pay or receive a bribe is corruption and should be understood as the essence of corruption. A bribe is a fixed sum, a certain percentage of a contract, or any other favor in money of kind, usually paid to an official who can make contracts on behalf of the government or otherwise distribute benefits to companies or individuals, businessmen and clients. There are many equivalent terms to bribery, like gratuities and baksheesh, which are all notions of corruption as perceived from the public. These are payments needed or demanded to make things pass swifter, smoother or more favorably through the government bureaucracy. Bribery can buy for instance political favors and escape the full burden of taxation and other regulations, or buy protected markets and monopolies, import/export licenses, etc. and can also be a form of informal taxation, when public officials charge additional under-the-tabl e payments or expect gifts from clients. Embezzlement is theft of public resources by public officials. Embezzlement is when a government official steals from the public institution in which he his employed, and from resources he is supposed to administer on behalf of the government and the public. However, disloyal employees in private firms can also embezzle money and other resources from their employers. Graft graft large gifts qualifies as graft, and most countries have laws against it. Example of graft is a politician using his knowledge of position to purchase land which he knows is planned for development, before this is publicly known, and then selling it at a significant profit. In Egypt some members of the parliament have their own ways under the table to purchase lands for their own benefits. Trading in influence or influence marketing in certain countries, refers to the situation where a person is selling his/her influence over the decision process involving a third party (person or institution). In Egypt, trading influence take place in importing and exporting goods, where the Role of the third party can be a partner in some instances Fraud is an economic crime that involves some kind of dishonesty, cheat or deceit. It is a broader legal and popular term that covers more than bribery and embezzlement. It is fraud for instance when governmental representatives are engaged in illegal trade networks, counterfeit and racketing, and when forgery, smuggling and other organized economic crime is propped up by official sanction and involvement. It is fraud when top officials take a share for closing their eyes on this; it is serious fraud when they have an active role in it. Extortion is money and other resources extracted by the use of force, violence or the threats to use force in an atmosphere of insecurity. Protection or security money can be extorted in the classical, infamous mafia style. Nepotism and cronyism Nepotism (personal relatives) has to do with favoritism of relatives and close circle in posts and advantages, while cronyism (personal friends) is demanding that a business should employ a friend of an official controlling regulations affecting the business. Also this can combine with bribe. Egypt can be example for this, by employing un qualified candidates ,just for favoring relatives or personal friends which affect business leading to huge corruption. Kickback kickback (manipulative corruption) is an officials share of misappropriated funds allocated from his or her organization to an organization involved in corrupt bidding. Giving a contract to a company, not efficient, in this case the officials receive a kickback payment, which is the part of the sum of money receive.  Analysis of Corruption Levels in Egypt: The analysis covers the individual, business and political corruption levels and the frequency in the different sectors where corruption can be encountered. Sectors describe which kind of corruption including bribes and facilitation payments can be encountered in different areas of Judicial System, Police, Licenses, transportation and Public Utilities, Land Administration, Tax Administration, Customs Administration, Public Procurement and Contracting and Environment, Natural Resources and Extractive Industry. All information is based on publicly available information and should be viewed as general guidelines on the types of corruption existing in Egypt. Levels of corruption in the different sectors indicate where corruption can be encountered. The levels are defined as follows: Individual Corruption: Corruption that takes place primarily in relations between individual citizens and public officials and authorities. Business Corruption: Corruption that takes place primarily in relations between enterprises/companies and public officials and authorities. Political Corruption: Corruption that takes place in the higher echelons of public administration and on a political level. Frequency refers to quantitative surveys on corruption in the respective sectors. 1. Judicial System Individual Corruption The constitution specifies equal access to the justice system regardless of ethnic or racial origin. The judicial system usually functions well, although incidents of corruption have been reported. There are cases where judges have accepted bribes from defendants in exchange for lenient sentences or discharge. Moreover, according to Global Integrity 2008 , bribery, favoritism and informal relationships affect the implementation of judicial decisions. Business Corruption The government is reportedly planning to establish special economic courts to rapidly settle commercial dispute. Currently, however, companies wishing to enforce commercial contracts or seeking to resolve dispute face a costly and time-consuming process. Indeed, both the average cost and the time required to resolve a dispute are higher than in other countries in the region. According to the Heritage Foundation 2009 , it takes an average of 6 years to decide commercial cases and appealing procedures can extend the cases above 15 years. On the other hand, the Heritage Foundation 2009 reports that local contractual arrangements are mostly secure. Political Corruption According to Global Integrity 2008 , the Military Court, the Supreme State Security Court and the Political Parties Court are not judicially reviewed. Reportedly, the President uses the military courts, in particular, for political purposes. In April 2008, the military courts tried and convicted 25 civilians, all leading members of the opposition the Muslim Brotherhood. The independence of judges is guaranteed by the constitution, but this has generally not been respected by the government, especially in politically charged cases. However, although the executive tries to influence the judiciary, the higher echelons of this sector have occasionally ruled against the government. And in spring 2006, nearly 7,000 out of Egypts 9,000 judges conducted a sit-in, advocating for independence and judicial reform. On lower levels, the executive has much power over the judiciary because of the low salaries and selective bonuses. The absence of lifetime tenure and other institutional guarantees of independence is a major problem. Frequency The World Bank IFC: Doing Business 2009 : Enforcing commercial contracts requires 42 procedures, taking an average of 1,010 days and costing 26% of the claim. 2. Police Individual Corruption The US Department of State 2008 reports  that petty corruption in the police force is pervasive, especially below senior levels. The police force is known to demand bribes and to violently abuse prisoners and detainees. The government has prosecuted some of the police officers involved in corruption and abuse. Business Corruption According to the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009  stated Egypt holds a competitive disadvantage concerning the reliability of its police services in protecting companies from crime. However, companies should note that the department within the police that handle implementing judicial decisions is used to accepting bribes to work partially on a case. According to the Kefaya Movement 2006, companies are often forced by the police to hire guard services at very expensive rates. Political Corruption According to Global Integrity 2008 , the police are subject to political interference. The police force is accused of being an instrument of the government to suppress political opponent and ordinary citizens. Impunity of the police is a persistent problem. Indeed, Global Integrity 2008 reports that officers found guilty of corruption rapidly receive an administrative sentence issued by the disciplinary military council within the Ministry of Interior, which never exceeds suspension for 6 months. The council does not convert these violations and crimes to courts. In cases when legal suits against law enforcement officials appear in front of courts, the council rushes to pass a weak administrative ruling to preclude the sentence that would be passed by the ordinary court involving imprisonment and removal. Because a person cannot be judged for twice for same crime, the corrupt officers receive the lowest sentence, i.e. an administrative sentence. Allegations have been made by the Kefaya Movement 2006 that the Minister of Interior took advantage of his position to illegally amass wealth. He allegedly purchased shops from detainees and even seized some of the detainees properties. Moreover, high-ranking police officials are accused of receiving money from drug traffickers. 3. Licenses, Infrastructure and Public Utilities Individual Corruption The law allows all citizens to apply for business licenses. However, citizens face many cumbersome bureaucratic procedures and obtaining a business license is costly. Business Corruption Companies should note that the Ministry of State for Administrative Development specifically noted public utilities as an area that was particularly disfigured by corruption. Despite Egypt having improved its performance in relation to obtaining of licenses and permits, obtaining utility connections and the completion of required notifications and examination, it still lags behind other countries in the region. Companies should note that facilitation payments are often required when dealing with licenses. Political Corruption Investigations into the ferry accident in the Red Sea in February 2006, which involved more than 1,000 deaths, concluded that the key factors in causing the accident were incompetence by the authorities and neglect by the ship owner. The owner of the ship was also a member of the Upper House appointed by President Mubarak, and this has led to speculations of collusion and corruption. Investigations into the Nasr City incident (the collapse of an 11 story building in 2004 that had been illegally modified) confirmed that fining lawbreakers has become an important source of revenue for both public and central government alike. This has given rise to speculation of whether the government is selling fines so that citizens can pay to break the law and ignore licensing requirements. Frequency The World Bank IFC: Doing Business 2009 . To construct a warehouse, a company is required to go through 28 procedures, taking 249 days and costing nearly 377% of the income per capital. The World Bank IFC: Enterprise Surveys 2007  7.3% of a companys annual sales are used as gifts or informal payments to public officials in order to get things done. 13.7% of companies expect to give gifts to obtain an operating license. 4. Land Administration Business Corruption Egypt has moved up 18 places in the World Bank IFC Doing Business 2009  with regards to registering property compared to 2007-2008. The cost involved in registering property is very low, both in comparison with the MENA region and OECD averages. On the other hand, registering property is very time-consuming in Egypt, taking almost twice as long as the regional average.Ã In this regard, companies should note that a awkward bureaucracy often gives rise to demands for so-called speed payments. Frequency The World Bank IFC: Doing Business 2009 : Registering property takes 7 procedures, can last an average of 72 days and amounts to 1% of the property value. 5. Tax Administration Business Corruption According to the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009 , tax regulations and tax rates constitute significantly problematic factors for doing business in Egypt. The number of payments and the time spent on preparing, filing and paying taxes constitute a load for the companies. Tax administration was mentioned by the Ministry of State for Administrative Development as one of the areas that are particularly tainted with corrupt practices. According to Global Integrity 2008 , tax laws are not always enforced uniformly and without discrimination. It is further reported that, while public employees have taxes deducted from their pay, the government will award special treatment to wealthy businesspeople, allowing significant levels of tax avoidance to go unpunished. Frequency The World Bank IFC: Doing Business 2009 : A medium-sized company must make 29 payments and spend 711 hours per year managing the administrative burden related to paying taxes at a total tax rate of 46% of profits. The World Bank IFC: Enterprise Surveys 2007 : 14% of companies expect to give gifts when meeting with tax inspectors, which is a distinguished decreased compared to 2004. 35% of companies claim that tax administration is a major restriction. 6. Customs Administration Individual Corruption Employees of the Suez Canal customs administration and those working in the associations related to the Suez Canal have a reputation for engaging in corruption. They routinely extort money, and illegally take away cigarettes and wine from each ferry that crosses the Suez Canal. Business Corruption Companies should know that corruption is not uncommon in relation to customs administration. According to Global Integrity 2008 , customs and excise laws are not always enforced uniformly and without discrimination. Large companies are reportedly unofficially excused from paying customs duties. Low-level officials in customs zones are known to demand bribes to speed up paperwork for licenses, clearances and other permits required to do business. Frequency The World Bank IFC: Doing Business 2009 : A standard export shipment of goods requires 6 documents and takes an average of 14 days at a cost of USD 737 per container. A standard import shipment of goods requires 6 documents and takes and average of 15 days at a cost of USD 823 per container. The World Bank IFC: Enterprise Surveys 2007 : More than 10% of companies expect to give gifts in order to obtain an import license. 7. Public Procurement and Contracting Business Corruption public procurement in Egypt has been stained by corrupt practices. A corruption scandal involving the Irrigation Ministry revealed that officials within the ministry are demanding bribes to award irrigation construction project contracts. In the housing sector, bribery is common in relation the awarding of contracts and the granting of demolition and building licenses. Several corruption scandals have been revealed within this sector, including international cases where Egyptian contractors have been charged with committing corrupt acts abroad. Companies are recommended to use a specialized public procurement due industry tool  in order to help improving corruption risks associated with public procurement in Egypt. Political Corruption It is reported that some tenders are given to companies formed by top officials of the Ministry of Interior and the Intelligence Service at inflated prices. Frequency The World Bank IFC: Enterprise Surveys 2007 : 92% of companies assess that other similar companies are either giving gifts or informal payments to win a government contract. The average value of a gift in order to secure a government contract is almost 10% of the contract value. 8. Environment, Natural Resources and Extractive Industry Business Corruption Officials in the Ministry ofÃ Agriculture receive very low salaries, though they are supervising projects estimated to be worth billions of EGP. Bribery and other corrupt practices (falsifying documents, etc.) are extremely common in this sector. Political Corruption The Ministry of Agriculture has had more than 10 high-profile corruption scandals over the last 5 years, which is the highest rate of any ministry or sector in Egypt. Since 1995 Transparency International has published each year the CPI, ranking countries on a scale from 0 (perceived to be highly corrupt) to 10 (perceived to have low levels of corruption). The CPI as a measurement of corruption has played a critical role in branding the issue of corruption on the worlds conscience. It sends a powerful message and national governments have been forced to take notice and act. However, the CPI results of the 2009 edition, Egypt is categorized as follows Rank = 111 of 180 countries CPI 2009 Score = 2.8 Surveys Used = 6 Confidence Range = 2.6 3.1 Source: Transparency International, www.transparency.org . Examples of corruption in Egypt: The administrative corruption can be seen in the following fields that would be tackled in detail later: The political corruption through fake elections that takes place in Egyptian parliament, supporting emergency law and abusing human rights on the different levels. The economic corruption through favoritism that enable special advances in projects or having facilities of some of those close to the regime. Like having privatization of owning lands with illegal documents. The agriculture sector: it was corrupted on various fields starting from the spoiled herbicides, the materials that cause cancer and the destruction of a number of the important commodities in the Egyptian economy. As also the Black cloud it has been formed over Cairo for couples of years as a result of farmers burning their rice fields that effect with a hovered smoke, which has caused polluting the air and clogging the throats of residents. And this affects the quality of air and peoples health by the carbon monoxide, as Over 2 million tons of straw are burned with they choose the easiest way to get rid of the straw and preparing for the winter planting season, although the government forbid this; still farmers burn and this takes place at night as government doesnt follow up. However corruption takes place with bakers who gets government subsidized flour and sell it in black market with an enormous profit. As also bread crisis takes place with Egyptian citizens who have to wait in long lines at subsidize bakeries. Corruption in transport and communication. For example, train accidents, which result from inefficiency of controlling and supervision of ministry. Corruption in Housing: contractions and the privatization of lands, flats of the new cities, roads, bridges and the main infrastructure. For example, massive rock in Mokatam(El Doweka); that results from digging by the government knowing its danger on citizens living there. Commissions paid for protection and the means of its transport. The sector of communication, mobile phones and fixed one, an example, recording calls of people to trace them illegally and selling secret data of consumers for gaining money. Corruption in the Interior Ministry starting from joining Police Academy, the security letter at the appointment of the average individuals, torture and even killing in the police stations. A number of the security leaders are involved in cooperating and facilitate a number of the outlawed actions Prostitution networks which are sometimes related to the state officials and its systems. Corruption in judicial authority: this is an important and unique aspect. It is found in our dear country. The way in which the US aid is distributed among individual organization and sometimes they steal it for their own benefits. 12- Press, media, its associations and the lack of the Egyptian medial leadership, the national press publish what they want and hide the truth from Egyptians while in contrast of the yellow press show all the governmental secrets. The so-called loyalty raise, which is given secretly, violating the legal financial rules, rules of the senior police and army commanders. corruption in the ministry of culture , ,the Beni Sweif Theater Fire, that take place in 5th September 2005 the minister Farouk Hosney described it as an accident, also the fire that was held in the Egyptian parliament hall destroyed everything inside the hall as well it was identified as an accident but it wasnt. And the government failed to protect the national landmark. Effects of corruption: In Egypt, corruption has disadvantaged national, social, economic and political progress. Public resources are allocated inefficiently, competent and honest citizens feel frustrated, and the general populations level of distrust rises. As a consequence, productivity is lower, administrative efficiency is reduced and the legitimacy of political and economic order is undermined. Consequently; foreign aid disappears, projects are left incomplete, and in the end donors lose enthusiasm. Corruption in Egypt also harms economic development by transferring large sums of money in accurately the opposite direction to what is needed. Funds intended for aid and investment instead flow quickly back to the accounts of corrupt officials, which tend to be in banks in stable and developed countries, beyond the reach of official seizure and the random effects of the economic chaos generated by corruption at home. The reverse flow of capital leads in turn to political and economic instability, poor inf rastructure, education, health and other services, and a general tendency to create or perpetuate low standards of living. Recommendations: Recommendations for regular corruption monitoring program must be used periodically to monitor trends in corruption and to evaluate the effectiveness of the anti-corruption measures adopted and implemented at the national level. However, international experts may also be requested to evaluate and monitor for international transparency. In addition anti-corruption program must be occupied with ethical behavior that can lead to a proper government, there are several point must be fulfilled for a better government. First, The importance of supporting decentralization in governorates and seeking to overcome the weak relationship between local administrations and citizens, which leads to have irresponsive citizens towards reform and modernization in Egypt Second the importance of following up officials and investigation and reporting on them ethically to prevent Anti-corruption. Third, releasing the right information circulation and the citizen has the right to know about corruption cases and providing the citizen full protection. Finally, there must be supervision upon profits and some funds, as the donations which are provided must be directed to the right places on the control of the government, as well as supporting the development of risk management and risk appetite.
Friday, October 25, 2019
8th Fire: Indigenous in the City, is part of a documentary series that describes the challenges that aboriginal people face when moving to the large cities from reservations. The documentary begins by describing the stereotypes that English Canadians as well as other visible minority groups perceive aboriginal people to be. They show how damaging the stereotypes are to the First Nations, especially in the area of education. The documentary concludes by offering a few some solutions of how to change and improve the relationship between the aboriginal community and the rest of Canada. The two main aspects of the film that I will focus my analysis on is the education system from past to present and the negative impacts it has had on the First NationÃ¢â¬â¢s people as well as aboriginal stereotyping. These two themes were the most prominent topics brought up throughout the film, and while one topic was well argued and framed, the other I will argue was more damaging than educationa l. I should mention that due to my ethnicity being of aboriginal decent, MÃ ©tis in particular, I was extremely critical of the film because though these issues need to be addressed publicly, if they are presented in the wrong light, it can cause more negative implications than positives. Though the film mentioned the impact that residential schools had and still has on the aboriginal people, I felt that this issue needed to be stressed further because the legacy of the schools is still extremely prominent in aboriginal communities today. The film refers to the fact that residential schools harmed the aboriginal people because they were not able to learn their culture, which has resulted in the formation of internalized oppression within in the group. Ã¢â¬Å"The... ...t Kids Docs Radio TV. Web. 1 Apr. 2012. . Fleras, Augie. Ã¢â¬Å"Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: Repairing the Relationship.Ã¢â¬ Chapter 7 of Unequal Relations: An Introduction to Race, Ethnic and Aboriginal Dynamics in Canada. 6th ed. Toronto: Pearson, 2010. 162-210. Print. King, Thomas. Ã¢â¬Å"Let Me Entertain You. The Truth About Stories: A Native Narrative. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005. 61-89. Print. Ruth, SeÃ ¡n. Ã¢â¬Å"Theories of Internalized Oppression.Ã¢â¬ Leadership and Liberation: A Psychological Approach. London: Routledge, 2006. 155-173. Print. Schissel, Bernard, and Terry Wotherspoon. Ã¢â¬Å"The Legacy of Residential Schools.Ã¢â¬ Inequality in Canada: A Reader on the Intersections of Gender, Race, and Class. 2nd ed. Ed. Valerie Zawilski. Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 2010. 102-121. Print.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
CHAPTER 12 PRICING DECISIONS AND COST MANAGEMENT 12-1The three major influences on pricing decisions are 1. Customers 2. Competitors 3. Costs 12-2Not necessarily. For a one-time-only special order, the relevant costs are only those costs that will change as a result of accepting the order. In this case, full product costs will rarely be relevant. It is more likely that full product costs will be relevant costs for long-run pricing decisions. 12-3Two examples of pricing decisions with a short-run focus: 1. Pricing for a one-time-only special order with no long-term implications. . Adjusting product mix and volume in a competitive market. 12-4Activity-based costing helps managers in pricing decisions in two ways. 1. It gives managers more accurate product-cost information for making pricing decisions. 2. It helps managers to manage costs during value engineering by identifying the cost impact of eliminating, reducing, or changing various activities. 12-5Two alternative starting points for long-run pricing decisions are 1. Market-based pricing, an important form of which is target pricing.The market-based approach asks, Ã¢â¬Å"Given what our customers want and how our competitors will react to what we do, what price should we charge? Ã¢â¬ 2. Cost-based pricing which asks, Ã¢â¬Å"What does it cost us to make this product and, hence, what price should we charge that will recoup our costs and achieve a target return on investment? Ã¢â¬ 12-6A target cost per unit is the estimated long-run cost per unit of a product (or service) that, when sold at the target price, enables the company to achieve the targeted operating income per unit. 2-7Value engineering is a systematic evaluation of all aspects of the value-chain business functions, with the objective of reducing costs while satisfying customer needs. Value engineering via improvement in product and process designs is a principal technique that companies use to achieve target cost per unit. 12-8A value-added co st is a cost that customers perceive as adding value, or utility, to a product or service. Examples are costs of materials, direct labor, tools, and machinery.A nonvalue-added cost is a cost that customers do not perceive as adding value, or utility, to a product or service. Examples of nonvalue-added costs are costs of rework, scrap, expediting, and breakdown maintenance. 12-9No. It is important to distinguish between when costs are locked in and when costs are incurred, because it is difficult to alter or reduce costs that have already been locked in. 12-10Cost-plus pricing is a pricing approach in which managers add a markup to cost in order to determine price. 2-11Cost-plus pricing methods vary depending on the bases used to calculate prices. Examples are (a) variable manufacturing costs; (b) manufacturing function costs; (c) variable product costs; and (d) full product costs. 12-12Two examples where the difference in the costs of two products or services is much smaller than th e differences in their prices follow: 1. The difference in prices charged for a telephone call, hotel room, or car rental during busy versus slack periods is often much greater than the difference in costs to provide these services. 2.The difference in costs for an airplane seat sold to a passenger traveling on business or a passenger traveling for pleasure is roughly the same. However, airline companies price discriminate. They routinely charge business travelersÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âthose who are likely to start and complete their travel during the same week excluding the weekendÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âa much higher price than pleasure travelers who generally stay at their destinations over at least one weekend. 12-13Life-cycle budgeting is an estimate of the revenues and costs attributable to each product from its initial R&D to its final customer servicing and support. 2-14Three benefits of using a product life-cycle reporting format are: 1. The full set of revenues and costs associated with each product becomes more visible. 2. Differences among products in the percentage of total costs committed at early stages in the life cycle are highlighted. 3. Interrelationships among business function cost categories are highlighted. 12-15Predatory pricing occurs when a business deliberately prices below its costs in an effort to drive competitors out of the market and restrict supply, and then raises prices rather than enlarge demand.Under U. S. laws, dumping occurs when a non-U. S. company sells a product in the United States at a price below the market value in the country where it is produced, and this lower price materially injures or threatens to materially injure an industry in the United States. Collusive pricing occurs when companies in an industry conspire in their pricing and production decisions to achieve a price above the competitive price and so restrain trade. 12-16(20Ã¢â¬â30 min. ) Relevant-cost approach to pricing decisions, special order. . Relevant revenue s, $4. 00 ( 1,000$4,000 Relevant costs Direct materials, $1. 60 ( 1,000$1,600 Direct manufacturing labor, $0. 90 ( 1,000900 Variable manufacturing overhead, $0. 70 ( 1,000700 Variable selling costs, 0. 05 ( $4,000 200 Total relevant costs 3,400 Increase in operating income$ 600 This calculation assumes that: a. The monthly fixed manufacturing overhead of $150,000 and $65,000 of monthly fixed marketing costs will be unchanged by acceptance of the 1,000 unit order. b.The price charged and the volumes sold to other customers are not affected by the special order. Chapter 12 uses the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"one-time-only special orderÃ¢â¬ to describe this special case. 2. The presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s reasoning is defective on at least two counts: a. The inclusion of irrelevant costsÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âassuming the monthly fixed manufacturing overhead of $150,000 will be unchanged; it is irrelevant to the decision. b. The exclusion of relevant costsÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âvariable selling costs (5% of the sellin g price) are excluded. 3. Key issues are: . Will the existing customer base demand price reductions? If this 1,000-tape order is not independent of other sales, cutting the price from $5. 00 to $4. 00 can have a large negative effect on total revenues. b. Is the 1,000-tape order a one-time-only order, or is there the possibility of sales in subsequent months? The fact that the customer is not in Dill CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"normal marketing channelsÃ¢â¬ does not necessarily mean it is a one-time-only order. Indeed, the sale could well open a new marketing channel.Dill Company should be reluctant to consider only short-run variable costs for pricing long-run business. 12-17(20Ã¢â¬â30 min. )Relevant-cost approach to short-run pricing decisions. 1. Analysis of special order: Sales, 3,000 units ( $75$225,000 Variable costs: Direct materials, 3,000 units ( $35$105,000 Direct manufacturing labor, 3,000 units ( $1030,000 Variable manufacturing overhead, 3,000 units ( $618,000 Other v ariable costs, 3,000 units ( $515,000 Sales commission 8,000 Total variable costs 176,000 Contribution margin$ 49,000Note that the variable costs, except for commissions, are affected by production volume, not sales dollars. If the special order is accepted, operating income would be $1,000,000 + $49,000 = $1,049,000. 2. Whether McMahonÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to quote full price is correct depends on many factors. He is incorrect if the capacity would otherwise be idle and if his objective is to increase operating income in the short run. If the offer is rejected, San Carlos, in effect, is willing to invest $49,000 in immediate gains forgone (an opportunity cost) to preserve the long-run selling-price structure.McMahon is correct if he thinks future competition or future price concessions to customers will hurt San CarlosÃ¢â¬â¢s operating income by more than $49,000. There is also the possibility that Abrams could become a long-term customer. In this case, is a price that covers only s hort-run variable costs adequate? Would Holtz be willing to accept a $8,000 sales commission (as distinguished from her regular $33,750 = 15% ( $225,000) for every Abrams order of this size if Abrams becomes a long-term customer? 12-18(15-20 min. Short-run pricing, capacity constraints. 1. Per kilogram of hard cheese: |Milk (8 liters [pic] $2. 00 per liter) |$16 | |Direct manufacturing labor |5 | |Variable manufacturing overhead |4 | |Fixed manufacturing cost allocated | 6 | |Total manufacturing cost |$31 | | | |If Colorado Mountains Dairy can get all the Holstein milk it needs, and has sufficient production capacity, then the minimum price per kilo it should charge for the hard cheese is the variable cost per kilo = $16 + $5 + $4 = $25 per kilo. 2. If milk is in short supply, then each kilo of hard cheese displaces 2 kilos of soft cheese (8Ã liters of milk per kilo of hard cheese versus 4 liters of milk per kilo of soft cheese). Then, for the hard cheese, the minimum price Colora do Mountains should charge is the variable cost per kilo of hard cheese plus the contribution margin from 2 kilos of soft cheese, or, 25 + (2 [pic] $10 per kilo) = $45 per kilo That is, if milk is in short supply, Colorado Mountains should not agree to produce any hard cheese unless the buyer is willing to pay at least $45 per kilo. 12-19 (25Ã¢â¬â30 min. ) Value-added, nonvalue-added costs. 1. |Category |Examples | | |Value-added costs |a. Materials and labor for regular repairs |$800,000 | |Nonvalue-added costs |b.Rework costs |$ 75,000 | | |c. Expediting costs caused by work delays |60,000 | | |g. Breakdown maintenance of equipment |55,000 | | |Total |$190,000 | |Gray area |d.Materials handling costs |$ 50,000 | | |e. Materials procurement and inspection costs |35,000 | | |f. Preventive maintenance of equipment |15,000 | | |Total |$100,000 |Classifications of value-added, nonvalue-added, and gray area costs are often not clear-cut. Other classifications of some of the cost cat egories are also plausible. For example, some students may include materials handling, materials procurement, and inspection costs and preventive maintenance as value-added costs (costs that customers perceive as adding value and as being necessary for good repair service) rather than as in the gray area.Preventive maintenance, for instance, might be regarded as value-added because it helps prevent nonvalue-adding breakdown maintenance. 2. Total costs in the gray area are $100,000. Of this, we assume 65%, or $65,000, are value-added and 35%, or $35,000, are nonvalue-added. Total value-added costs: $800,000 + $65,000 $ 865,000 Total nonvalue-added costs: $190,000 + $35,000 225,000 Total costs$1,090,000 Nonvalue-added costs are $225,000 ? $1,090,000 = 20. 64% of total costs.Value-added costs are $865,000 ? $1,090,000 = 79. 36% of total costs. |3. |Effect on Costs Classified as | | |Value-Added |Nonvalue-Added |Gray | |Program | | |Area | |(a) Quality improvement programs to | | | | |Ã ¢â¬ ¢ reduce rework costs by 75% (0. 5 ( $75,000) | |Ã¢â¬â$ 56,250 | | |Ã¢â¬ ¢ reduce expediting costs by 75% | | | | |(0. 75 ( $60,000) | |Ã¢â¬â 45,000 | | |Ã¢â¬ ¢ reduce materials and labor costs by 5% | | | | |(0. 5 ( $800,000) |Ã¢â¬â$ 40,000 |Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã | | |Total effect |Ã¢â¬â$ 40,000 |Ã¢â¬â$101,250 | | | | | | | |(b) Working with suppliers to | | | | |Ã¢â¬ ¢ reduce materials procurement and inspection costs by 20% (0. 0 ( $35,000) | | | | |Ã¢â¬ ¢ reduce materials handling costs by 25% | | |Ã¢â¬â$ 7,000 | |(0. 25 ( $50,000) | | | | |Total effect | | |Ã¢â¬â 12,500 | |Transferring 65% of gray area costs (0. 5 ( | | |Ã¢â¬â 19,500 | |$19,500 = $12,675) as value-added and 35% | | | | |(0. 5 ( $19,500 = $6,825) as nonvalue-added | | | | |Effect on value-added and nonvalue-added costs |Ã¢â¬â$ 12,675 |Ã¢â¬â$ 6,825 |+ 19,500 | | |Ã¢â¬â$ 12,675 |Ã¢â¬â$ 6,825 |$ 0 | |(c) Maintenance programs to | | | | |Ã¢â¬ ¢ increase preventive maintenance costs by 50% | | | | |(0. 0 ( $15,000) | | |+$ 7,500 | |Ã¢â¬ ¢ decrease breakdown maintenance costs by 40% | | | | |(0. 40 ( $55,000) | |Ã¢â¬â$ 22,000 |Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã | |Total effect | |Ã¢â¬â 22,000 |+ 7,500 | |Transferring 65% of gray area costs (0. 65 ( $7,500 = $4,875) as value-added and 35%| | | | |(0. 5 ( $7,500 = $2,625) as nonvalue-added | | | | |Effect on value-added and nonvalue-added costs |+$ 4,875 |+ 2,625 |Ã¢â¬â 7,500 | | |+$ 4,875 |Ã¢â¬â$Ã Ã 19,375 |$ 0 | |Total effect of all programs |Ã¢â¬â$ 47,800 |Ã¢â¬â$127,450 | | |Value-added and nonvalue-added costs calculated in requirement 2 | | | | |Expected value-added and nonvalue-added costs as a result of implementing these |865,000 |225,000 | | |programs | | | | | |$817,200 |$ 97,550 | | If these programs had been implemented, total costs would have decreased from $1,090,000 (requirement 2) to $817,200 + $97,550 = $914,750, and the percentage of nonvalue-added costs would decrease from 20. 64% (requirement 2) to $97,550 ? 914,750 = 10. 66%. These are significant improvements in MarinoÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. 12-20(25(30 min. ) Target operating income, value-added costs, service company. 1. The classification of total costs in 2012 into value-added, nonvalue-added, or in the gray area in between follows: ValueGrayNonvalue-Total AddedAreaadded(4) = (1) (2) (3) (1)+(2)+(3)Doing calculations and preparing drawings 77% ? $390,000$300,300$300,300 Checking calculations and drawings 3% ? $390,000$11,70011,700 Correcting errors found in drawings 8% ? $390,000$31,20031,200 Making changes in response to client requests 5% ? $390,000 19,50019,500 Correcting errors to meet government building code, 7% ? $390,000 27,300 27,300 Total professional labor costs 319,800 11,700 58,500 390,000 Administrative and support costs at 44% ($171,600 ? $390,000) of professional labor costs 140,712 5,148 25,740 171,600 Travel 15,000 Ã¢â¬â 15,000 Total$475,512$16,848$84,240$576,600Doing calculations and responding to client requests for changes are value-added costs because customers perceive these costs as necessary for the service of preparing architectural drawings. Costs incurred on correcting errors in drawings and making changes because they were inconsistent with building codes are nonvalue-added costs. Customers do not perceive these costs as necessary and would be unwilling to pay for them. Calvert should seek to eliminate these costs by making sure that all associates are well-informed regarding building code requirements and by training associates to improve the quality of their drawings. Checking calculations and drawings is in the gray area (some, but not all, checking may be needed). There is room for disagreement on these classifications.For example, checking calculations may be regarded as value added. 2. Reduction in professional labor-hours by a. Correcting errors in drawings (8% ? 7,500)600 hours b. Correcting errors to conform to building code (7% ? 7,500) 525 hours Total 1,125 hours Cost savings in professional labor costs (1,125 hours ? $52)$ 58,500 Cost savings in variable administrative and support costs (44% ? $58,500) 25,740 Total cost savings$ 84,240 Current operating income in 2012$124,650 Add cost savings from eliminating errors 84,240 Operating income in 2012 if errors eliminated$208,890 3. Currently 85% ? 7,500 hours = 6,375 hours are billed to clients generating revenues of $701,250.The remaining 15% of professional labor-hours (15% ? 7,500 = 1,125 hours) is lost in making corrections. Calvert bills clients at the rate of $701,250 ? 6,375 = $110 per professional labor-hour. If the 1,125 professional labor-hours currently not being billed to clients were billed to clients, CalvertÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues would increase by 1,125 hours ? $110 = $123,750 from $701,250 to $825,000 ($701,250 + $123,750). Costs remain unchanged Professional labor costs$390,000 Administrative and support (44% ? $390,000) 171,600 Travel 15,000 Total costs$576,600 CalvertÃ¢â¬â¢s operating income would be Revenues$825,000 Total costs 576,600 Operating income$248,400 12-21(25Ã¢â¬â30 min. Target prices, target costs, activity-based costing. 1. SnappyÃ¢â¬â¢s operating income in 2011 is as follows: | |Total for | | | |250,000 Tiles |Per Unit | | |(1) |(2) = (1) ? 250,000 | |Revenues ($4 ( 250,000) |$1,000,000 |$4. 00 | |Purchase cost of tiles ($3 ( 250,000) |750,000 |3. 0 | |Ordering costs ($50 ( 500) |25,000 |0. 10 | |Receiving and storage ($30 ( 4,000) |120,000 |0. 48 | |Shipping ($40 ( 1,500) |60,000 |0. 24 | |Total costs |955,000 |3. 82 | |Operating income |$ 45,000 |$0. 18 | 2.Price to retailers in 2012 is 95% of 2011 price = 0. 95 ( $4 = $3. 80; cost per tile in 2012 is 96% of 2011 cost = 0. 96 ( $3 = $2. 88. SnappyÃ¢â¬â¢s operating income in 2012 is as follows: | |Total for | | | |250,000 Tiles |Per Unit | | |(1) |(2) = (1) ? 250,000 | |Revenues ($3. 80 ( 250,000) |$950,000 |$3. 0 | |Purchase cost of tiles ($2. 88 ( 250,000) |720,000 |2. 88 | |Ordering costs ($50 ( 500) |25,000 |0. 10 | |Receiving and storage ($30 ( 4,000) |120,000 |0. 48 | |Shipping ($40 ( 1,500) |60,000 |0. 24 | |Total costs |925,000 |3. 0 | |Operating income |$ 25,000 |$0. 10 | 3. SnappyÃ¢â¬â¢s operating income in 2012, if it makes changes in ordering and material handling, will be as follows: | |Total for | | | |250,000 Tiles |Per Unit | | |(1) |(2) = (1) ? 50,000 | |Revenues ($3. 80 ( 250,000) |$950,000 |$3. 80 | |Purchase cost of tiles ($2. 88 ( 250,000) |720,000 |2. 88 | |Ordering costs ($25 ( 200) |5,000 |0. 02 | |Receiving and storage ($28 ( 3,125) |87,500 |0. 35 | |Shipping ($40 ( 1,500) |60,000 |0. 4 | |Total costs |872,500 |3. 49 | |Operating income |$ 77,500 |$0. 31 | Through better cost management, Snappy will be able to achieve its target operating income of $0. 30 per tile despite the fact that its revenue per tile has decreased by $0. 20 ($4. 0 0 Ã¢â¬â $3. 80), while its purchase cost per tile has decreased by only $0. 12 ($3. 00 Ã¢â¬â $2. 88). 12-22 (20 min. ) Target costs, effect of product-design changes on product costs. 1. and 2.Manufacturing costs of HJ6 in 2010 and 2011 are as follows: 2010 2011 Per UnitPer Unit Total (2) = Total (4) = (1)(1) ? 3,500 (3)(3) ? 4,000 Direct materials, $1,200 ? 3,500; $1,100 ? 4,000$4,200,000$1,200$4,400,000$1,100 Batch-level costs, $8,000 ? 70; $7,500 ? 80 560,000 160 600,000 150 Manuf. operations costs, $55 ? 21,000; $50 ? 22,000 1,155,000 330 1,100,000 275 Engineering change costs, $12,000 ? 14; $10,000 ? 10 168,000 48 100,000 25 Total$6,083,000$1,738$6,200,000$1,550 3. [pic]= [pic] ? 90% = $1,738 ? 0. 90 = $1,564. 20 Actual manufacturing cost per unit of HJ6 in 2011 was $1,550.Hence, Medical Instruments did achieve its target manufacturing cost per unit of $1,564. 20 4. To reduce the manufacturing cost per unit in 2011, Medical Instruments reduced the cost per unit in each of the four cost categoriesÃ¢â¬âdirect materials costs, batch-level costs, manufacturing operations costs, and engineering change costs. It also reduced machine-hours and number of engineering changes madeÃ¢â¬âthe quantities of the cost drivers. In 2010, Medical Instruments used 6 machine-hours per unit of HJ6 (21,000 machine-hours (3,500 units). In 2011, Medical Instruments used 5. 5 machine-hours per unit of HJ6 (22,000 machine-hours ( 4,000 units). Medical Instruments reduced engineering changes from 14 in 2010 to 10 in 2011.Medical Instruments achieved these gains through value engineering activities that retained only those product features that customers wanted while eliminating nonvalue-added activities and costs. 12-23(20 min. )Cost-plus target return on investment pricing. 1. Target operating income = target return on investment ( invested capital Target operating income (25% of $900,000)$225,000 Total fixed costs 375,000 Target contribution margin$600,000 Target contri bution per room-night, ($600,000 ? 15,000) $40 Add variable costs per room-night 5 Price to be charged per room-night $45 Proof Total room revenues ($45 ( 15,000 room-nights)$675,000 Total costs: Variable costs ($5 ( 15,000)$ 75,000 Fixed costs 375,000Total costs 450,000 Operating income$225,000 The full cost of a room = variable cost per room + fixed cost per room The full cost of a room = $5 + ($375,000 ? 15,000) = $5 + $25 = $30 Markup per room = Rental price per room Ã¢â¬â Full cost of a room = $45 Ã¢â¬â $30 = $15 Markup percentage as a fraction of full cost = $15 ? $30 = 50% 2. If price is reduced by 10%, the number of rooms Beck could rent would increase by 10%. The new price per room would be 90% of $45 $ 40. 50 The number of rooms Beck expects to rent is 110% of 15,000 16,500 The contribution margin per room would be $40. 50 Ã¢â¬â $5$ 35. 50 Contribution margin ($35. 50 ( 16,500)$585,750Because the contribution margin of $585,750 at the reduced price of $40. 50 is l ess than the contribution margin of $600,000 at a price of $45, Blodgett should not reduce the price of the rooms. Note that the fixed costs of $375,000 will be the same under the $45 and the $40. 50 price alternatives and hence, are irrelevant to the analysis. 12-24(20(25 min. )Cost-plus, target pricing, working backwards. 1. Investment$8,400,000 Return on investment18% Operating income (18% ( $8,400,000)$1,512,000 Operating income per unit of XR500 ($1,512,000 ( 1,500)$1,008 Full cost per unit of XR500 (1,008 ? 0. 09)$11,200 Selling price (($11,200 + $1,008))$12,208 Markup percentage on variable cost ($1,008 ( $8,450)11. 93%Total fixed costs = (Full cost per unit Ã¢â¬â Variable cost per unit) ( Units sold = ($11,200 Ã¢â¬â $8,450) ( 1,500 units = $4,125,000 2. Contribution margin per unit = $12,208 Ã¢â¬â $8,450 = $3,758 Increase in sales = $10% ( 1,500 units = 150 units Increase in contribution margin = $3,758 ( 150 units =$563,700 Less: Advertising costs 500,000 Increase in operating income$ 63,700 Road Warrior should spend $500,000 in advertising because it increases operating income by $63,700. 3. |Revenues ($12,208 ? 1,400 units) |$17,091,200 | |Target full cost at 9% markup ($17,091,200 ? 1. 9) |$15,680,000 | |Less: Target total fixed costs ($4,125,000 Ã¢â¬â $125,000) | 4,000,000 | |Target total variable costs |$11,680,000 | |Divided by number of units | ? 1,400 units | |Target variable cost per unit |$ 8,342. 86 | 12-25(20 min. ) Life-cycle product costing. 1. [pic]Contribution margin per unit = Selling price Ã¢â¬â Variable cost per unit = $50 Ã¢â¬â $25 = $25 |Total fixed costs over |= |Design fixed costs |+ |Production fixed |+ |Marketing and distribution | |life of robot | | | |costs | |fixed costs | = $650,000 + $3,560,000 + $2,225,000 = $6,435,000 BEP in units = [pic] 2a. Option A: |Revenues ($50 [pic] 500,000 units) |$25,000,000 | |Variable costs ($25 [pic] 500,000 units) |12,500,000 | |Fixed costs | 6,435,000 | |Operating incom e |$ 6,065,000 | 2b. Option B: Revenues | | | Year 2 ($70 [pic] 100,000 units) |$ 7,000,000 | | Years 3 & 4 ($40[pic]600,000 units) | 24,000,000 | | Total revenues |31,000,000 | |Variable costs ($25 [pic] 700,000 units) |17,500,000 | |Fixed costs | 6,435,000 | |Operating income |$ 7,065,000 | Over the productÃ¢â¬â¢s life-cycle, Option B results in an overall higher operating income of $1,000,000 ($7,065,000 Ã¢â¬â $6,065,000). 12-26(30 min. )Relevant-cost approach to pricing decisions. |1. Revenues (1,000 crates at $117 per crate) | |$117,000 | | |Variable costs: | | | | | Manufacturing |$35,000 | | | | Marketing | 17,000 | | | | Total variable costs | | 52,000 | | |Contribution margin | |65,000 | | |Fixed costs: | | | | | Manufacturing |$30,000 | | | | Marketing | 13,000 | | | | Total fixed costs | | 43,000 | | |Operating income | |$ 22,000 | Normal markup percentage: $65,000 ? $52,000 = 125% of total variable costs. 2. Only the manufacturing-cost category is relevant to con sidering this special order; no additional marketing costs will be incurred. Variable manufacturing cost per crate = $35,000 ? 1,000 crates = $35 per crate.The relevant manufacturing costs for the 200-crate special order are: Variable manufacturing cost per unit $35 ( 200 crates$ 7,000 Special packaging 3,000 Relevant manufacturing costs$10,000 Any price above $50 per crate ($10,000 ? 200) will make a positive contribution to operating income. Therefore, based on financial considerations, Stardom should accept the 200-crate special order at $55 per crate that will generate revenues of $11,000 ($55 ( 200) and relevant (incremental) costs of $10,000. The reasoning based on a comparison of $55 per crate price with the $65 per crate absorption cost ignores monthly cost-volume-profit relationships.The $65 per crate absorption cost includes a $30 per crate cost component that is irrelevant to the special order. The relevant range for the fixed manufacturing costs is from 500 to 2,000 crat es per month; the special order will increase production from 1,000 to 1,200 crates per month. Furthermore, the special order requires no incremental marketing costs. 3. If the new customer is likely to remain in business, Burst should consider whether a strictly short-run focus is appropriate. For example, what is the likelihood of demand from other customers increasing over time? If Burst accepts the 200-crate special offer for more than one month, it may preclude accepting other customers at prices exceeding $55 per crate.Moreover, the existing customers may learn about BurstÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness to set a price based on variable cost plus a small contribution margin. The longer the time frame over which Burst keeps selling 200 crates of canned peaches at $55 a crate, the more likely it is that existing customers will approach Burst for their own special price reductions. If the new customer wants the contract to extend over a longer time period, Burst should negotiate a higher pr ice. 12-27(25Ã¢â¬â30 min. )Considerations other than cost in pricing decisions. 1. |Guest nights on weeknights: | | |18 weeknights ? 100 rooms ? 0% = 1,620 | | |Guest nights on weekend nights: | | |12 weekend nights ? 100 rooms ? 20% = 240 | | |Total guest nights in April = 1,620 + 240 = 1,860 | | |Breakfasts served: | | |1,620 weeknight guest nights ? 1. 0 = 1,620 | | | 240 weekend guest nights ? 2. = 600 | | |Total breakfasts served in April = 1,620 + 600 = 2,220 | | |Total costs for April: | | |Depreciation |$ 20,000 | |Administrative costs |35,000 | |Fixed housekeeping and supplies |12,000 | |Variable housekeeping and supplies (1,860 ? $25) |46,500 | |Fixed breakfast costs |5,000 | |Variable breakfast costs (2,220 ? 5) | 11,100 | |Total costs for April |$129,600 | |Cost per guest night ($129,600 ? 1,860) |$69. 68 | |Revenue for April ($68 ? 1,860) |$126,480 | |Total costs for April | 129,600 | |Operating income/(loss) |$ (3,120) | 2. |New weeknight guest nights | | |18 weeknights ? 100 rooms ? 5% = 1,530 | | |New weekend guest nights | | |12 weeknights ? 100 rooms ? 50% = 600 | | |Total guest nights in April = 1,530 + 600 = 2,130 | | |Breakfasts served: | | |1,530 weeknight guest nights ? 1. 0 = 1,530 | | | 600 weekend guest nights ? 2. = 1,500 | | |Total breakfasts served in April = 1,530 + 1,500 = 3,030 | | |Total costs for April: | | |Depreciation |$20,000 | |Administrative costs |35,000 | |Fixed housekeeping and supplies |12,000 | |Variable housekeeping and supplies (2,130 ? $25) |53,250 | |Fixed breakfast costs |5,000 | |Variable breakfast costs (3,030 ? $5) | 15,150 | |Total costs |$140,400 | |Revenue [(1,530 ? $80) + (600 ? 50)] |$152,400 | |Total costs for April | 140,400 | |Operating income |$ 12,000 | Yes, this pricing arrangement would increase operating income by $15,120 from an operating loss of $3,120 to an operating income of $12,000 ($12,000 + $3,120 = $15,120). 3. The weeknight guests are business travelers who have to stay at the hotel on weeknights to conduct business for their organizations. They are probably not paying personally for their hotel stays, and they are more interested in the hotelÃ¢â¬â¢s location in the business park than the price of the stay, as long as it is reasonable. The demand of business travelers is inelastic.In contrast, the weekend guests are families who are staying at the hotel for pleasure and are paying for the hotel from their personal incomes. They are willing to consider other hotel options or even not travel at all if the price is high and unaffordable. The demand of pleasure travelers is elastic. Because of the differences in preferences of the weeknight and weekend guests, Executive Suites can price discriminate between these guests by charging $30 more on weeknights than on weekends and still have weeknight travelers stay at the hotel. 4. Executive Suites would need to charge a minimum of $35 per night for the last-minute rooms, an amount equal to the variable cost per room. Variable cost per room night = $25 per room night + $5 ? breakfasts = $35. Any price above $35 would increase Executive Suites operating income. 12-28 (25 min. ) Cost-plus, target pricing, working backward. 1. In the following table, work backwards from operating income to calculate the selling price |Selling price |$ 10. 14 (plug) | |Less: Variable cost per unit | 3. 75 | |Unit contribution margin |$ 6. 39 | |Number of units produced and sold | ? 00,000 units | |Contribution margin |$3,195,000 | |Less: Fixed costs | 3,000,000 | |Operating income |$ 195,000 | a)Total sales revenue = $10. 14 [pic] 500,000 units = $5,070,000 b)Selling price = $10. 14 (from above) Alternatively, |Operating income |$ 195,000 | |Add fixed costs | 3,000,000 | |Contribution margin |3,195,000 | |Add variable costs ($3. 75 ? 500,000 units) | 1,875,000 | |Sales revenue |$5,070,000 | [pic] )Rate of return on investment = [pic] d)Markup % on full cost Total cost = ($3. 75 [pic] 500,000 units) + $3,000,000 = $4,875,000 Unit cost = [pic] Markup % = [pic] Or [pic] |2. |New fixed costs |=$3,000,000 Ã¢â¬â $200,000 = $2,800,000 | | |New variable costs |= $3. 75 Ã¢â¬â $0. 60 = $3. 15 | | |New total costs |= ($3. 15 ? 500,000 units) + $2,800,000 = $4,375,000 | | |New total sales (5% markup) |= $4,375,000 [pic] 1. 4 = $4,550,000 | | |New selling price |= $4,550,000 ? 500,000 units = $9. 10 | | |Alternatively, | | | |New unit cost |= $4,375,000 ? 500,000 units = $8. 75 | | |New selling price |= $8. 75 [pic] 1. 04 = $9. 10 | |3. |New units sold = 500,000 units ? 90% = $450,000 units | Budgeted Operating Income | |for the Year Ending December 31, 20xx | |Revenues ($9. 10 [pic] 450,000 units) |$4,095,000 | |Variable costs ($3. 15 [pic] 450,000 units) | 1,417,500 | |Contribution margin |2,677,500 | |Fixed costs | 2,800,000 | |Operating income (loss) |$ (122,500) | 12-29(40Ã¢â¬â45 min. ) Target prices, target costs, value engineering, cost incurrence, locked-in cost, activi ty-based costing. 1. |Old CE100 | |New CE100 | | | |Cost Change | | |Direct materials costs |$182,000 |$2. 20 [pic] 7,000 = $15,400 less |$166,600 | |Direct manufacturing labor costs |28,000 |$0. 50 [pic] 7,000 = $3,500 less |24,500 | |Machining costs |31,500 |Unchanged because capacity same |31,500 | |Testing costs |35,000 |(20% [pic] 2. 5 [pic] 7,000) ? 2 = $7,000 |28,000 | |Rework costs |14,000 |(See Note 1) |5,600 | |Ordering costs |3,360 |(See Note 2) |2,100 | |Engineering costs |21,140 |Unchanged because capacity same |21,140 | |Total manufacturing costs |$315,000 | |$279,440 | Note 1: 10% of old CE100s are reworked. That is, 700 (10% of 7,000) CE100s made are reworked. Rework costs = $20 per unit reworked ( 700 = $14,000. If rework falls to 4% of New CE100s manufactured, 280 (4% of 7,000) New CE100s manufactured will require rework. Rework costs = $20 per unit ( 280 = $5,600. Note 2 : Ordering costs for New CE100 = 2 orders/month ( 50 components ( $21/order = $2,100Unit manu facturing costs of New CE100 = $279,440 ? 7,000 = $39. 92 2. Total manufacturing cost reductions based on new design= $315,000 Ã¢â¬â $279,440 = $35,560 Reduction in unit manufacturing costs based on new design= $35,560 ? 7,000 = $5. 08 per unit. The reduction in unit manufacturing costs based on the new design can also be calculated as Unit cost of old design, $45 ($315,000 ? 7,000 units) Ã¢â¬â Unit cost of new design, $39. 92 = $5. 08 Therefore, the target cost reduction of $6 per unit is not achieved by the redesign. 3. Changes in design have a considerably larger impact on costs per unit relative to improvements in manufacturing efficiency ($5. 08 versus $1. 50).One explanation is that many costs are locked in once the design of the radio-cassette is completed. Improvements in manufacturing efficiency cannot reduce many of these costs. Design choices can influence many direct and overhead cost categories, for example, by reducing direct materials requirements, by reducing d efects requiring rework, and by designing in fewer components that translate into fewer orders placed and lower ordering costs. 12-30(25 min. )Cost-plus, target return on investment pricing. 1. Target operating income = Return on capital in dollars = $13,000,000[pic]10% = $1,300,000 2. |Revenues* |$6,000,000 | |Variable costs [($3. 50 + $1. 0)[pic]500,000 cases | 2,500,000 | |Contribution margin |3,500,000 | |Fixed costs ($1,000,000 + $700,000 + $500,000) | 2,200,000 | |Operating income (from requirement 1) |$1,300,000 | * solve backwards for revenues Selling price = [pic]$12 per case. Markup % on full cost Full cost = $2,500,000 + $2,200,000 = $4,700,000 Unit cost = $4,700,000 ? 500,000 cases = $9. 40 per case Markup % on full cost = [pic]27. 66% 3. Budgeted Operating Income | |For the year ending December 31, 20xx | |Revenues ($14 [pic] 475,000 cases*) |$6,650,000 | |Variable costs ($5 [pic] 475,000 cases) | 2,375,000 | |Contribution margin |4,275,000 | |Fixed costs | 2,200,000 | |Operating income |$2,075,000 | *New units = 500,000 cases[pic]95% = 475,000 casesReturn on investment = [pic]15. 96% Yes, increasing the selling price is a good idea because operating income increases without increasing invested capital, which results in a higher return on investment. The new return on investment exceeds the 10% target return on investment. 12-31(20 min. )Cost-plus, time and materials, ethics. 1. As shown in the table below, Garrison will tell Briggs that she will have to pay $460 to get the air conditioning system repaired and $440 to get it replaced. |COST |Labor |Materials |Total Cost | |Repair option (5 hrs. [pic] $30 per hr. $100) |$150 |$100 |$250 | |Replace option (2 hrs. [pic] $30 per hr. ; $200) | 60 | 200 | 260 | |Ã | | |Ã | |PRICE (100% markup on labor cost; 60% markup on materials) |Labor |Materials |Total Price | |Repair option ($150 [pic] 2; $100 [pic] 1. 6) |$300 |$160 |$460 | |Replace option ($60 [pic] 2; $200 [pic] 1. 6) | 120 | 320 | 440 | 2 .If the repair and replace options are equally effective, Briggs will choose to get the air conditioning system replaced for $440 (rather than spend $460 on repairing it). 3. R&C Mechanical will earn a greater contribution toward overhead in the repair option ($210 = $460 Ã¢â¬â $250) than in the replace option ($180 = $440 Ã¢â¬â $260). Therefore, Garrison will recommend the repair option to Briggs which is not the one she would prefer. Recognizing this conflict, Garrison may even present only the repair option to Ashley Briggs. Of course, he runs the risk of Briggs walking away and thinking of other options (at which point, he could present the replace option as a compromise). The problem is hat Garrison has superior information about the repairs needed but his incentives may cause him to not reveal his information and instead use it to his advantage. It is only the sellerÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to build a reputation, to have a long-term relationship with the customer, and to have th e customer recommend the seller to other potential buyers of the service that encourages an honest discussion of the options. The ethical course of action would be to honestly present both options to Briggs and have her choose. To have their employees act ethically, organizations do not reward employees on the basis of the profits earned on various jobs. They also develop codes of conduct and core values and beliefs that specify appropriate and inappropriate behaviors. 12-32(25 min. )Cost-plus and market-based pricing. 1.California TempsÃ¢â¬â¢ full cost per hour of supplying contract labor is Variable costs$13 Fixed costs ($168,000 ? 84,000 hours) 2 Full cost per hour$15 Price per hour at full cost plus 20% = $15 ( 1. 20 = $18 per hour. 2. Contribution margins for different prices and demand realizations are as follows: | | |Contribution Margin per | | | | |Variable Cost per Hour |Hour |Demand in Hours |Total Contribution | |Price per Hour |(2) |(3) = (1) Ã¢â¬â (2) |(4) |(5) = (3) ? 4) | |(1) | | | | | |$16 |$13 |$3 |124,000 |$372,000 | |17 |13 |4 |104,000 |416,000 | |18 |13 |5 |84,000 |420,000 | |19 |13 |6 |74,000 |444,000 | |20 |13 |7 |61,000 |427,000 | Fixed costs will remain the same regardless of the demand realizations.Fixed costs are, therefore, irrelevant since they do not differ among the alternatives. The table above indicates that California Temps can maximize contribution margin ($444,000) and operating income by charging a price of $19 per hour. 3. The cost-plus approach to pricing in requirement 1 does not explicitly consider the effect of prices on demand. The approach in requirement 2 models the interaction between price and demand and determines the optimal level of profitability using concepts of relevant costs. The two different approaches lead to two different prices in requirements 1 and 2. As the chapter describes, pricing decisions should consider both demand or market considerations and supply or cost factors.The approach in requir ement 2 is the more balanced approach. In most cases, of course, managers use the cost-plus method of requirement 1 as only a starting point. They then modify the cost-plus price on the basis of market considerationsÃ¢â¬âanticipated customer reaction to alternative price levels and the prices charged by competitors for similar products. 12-33Cost-plus and market-based pricing. 1. Single rate = [pic] $11. 91 per test-hour (TH) Hourly billing rate for HTT and ACT = $11. 91[pic]1. 45 = $17. 27 2. Labor and supervision = [pic]= $4. 64 per test-hour Setup and facility costs = [pic]= $503. 275 per setup-hour Utilities = [pic]= $36. 80 per machine-hour (MH) 3. |HTT |ACT |Total | |Labor and supervision |$295,104 |$196,736 |$ 491,840 | |($4. 64? 63, 600; 42,400 test-hours)1 | | | | |Setup and facility cost |100,655 |301,965 |402,620 | |($503. 275? 200; 600 setup-hours)2 | | | | |Utilities | 184,000 | | | |($36. 80? ,000; 5,000 machine-hours)3 | |184,000 |368,000 | |Total cost |$579,759 | $682,701 |$1,262,460 | |Number of testing hours (TH) |? 63,600 TH |? 42,400 TH | | |Cost per testing hour |$9. 12 per TH |$ 16. 10 per TH | | |Mark-up | ? 1. 45 | ? 1. 5 | | |Billing rate per testing hour |$ 13. 22 per TH |$ 23. 35 per TH | | | | | | | 1106,000 test-hours [pic] 60% = 63,600 test-hours; 106,000 test-hours[pic]40% = 42,400 test-hours 2800 setup-hours ? 25% = 200 setup-hours; 800 setup-hours ? 75% = 600 setup-hours 310,000 machine-hours ? 50% = 5,000 machine-hours; 10,000 machine-hours ? 50% = 5,000 machine-hours The billing rates based on the activity-based cost structure make more sense.These billing rates reflect the ways the testing procedures consume the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s resources. 4. To stay competitive, Best Test needs to be more efficient in arctic testing. Roughly 44% of arctic testingÃ¢â¬â¢s total cost [pic] occurs in setups and facility costs. Perhaps the setup activity can be redesigned to achieve cost savings. Best Test should also look for savings in the labor and supervision cost per test-hour and the total number of test-hours used in arctic testing, as well as the utility cost per machine-hour and the total number of machine hours used in arctic testing. This may require redesigning the test, redesigning processes, and achieving efficiency and productivity improvements. 12-34(25Ã¢â¬â30 min. )Life-cycle costing. 1. Total Project Life-Cycle Costs | |Variable costs: | | | Metal extraction and processing ($100 per ton ? 50,000 tons) |$5,000,000 | |Fixed costs: | | | Metal extraction and processing ($4,000 ? 24 months) |96,000 | | Rent on temporary buildings ($2,000 ? 7 months) |54,000 | | Administration ($5,000 ? 27 months) |135,000 | | Clean-up ($30,000 ? 3 months) |90,000 | | Land restoration |475,000 | | Selling land | 150,000 | |Total life-cycle cost |$6,000,000 | 2. Projected Life Cycle Income Statement | |Revenue ($150 per ton [pic] 50,000 tons) |$7,500,000 | |Sale of land (plug after inputting other numbers) |500,000 | |Total life-cycle cost | (6,000,000) | |Life-cycle operating income ($40 per ton ? 50,000 tons) |$2,000,000 | Mark-up percentage on project life-cycle cost = [pic] [pic] = 33? % 3. |Revenue ($140 per ton [pic] 50,000 tons) |$7,000,000 | |Sale of land | 400,000 | |Total revenue |$7,400,000 | |Total life-cycle cost at mark-up of 33? % |$5,550,000 | |($7,400,000 ? 1. 33333) | | |New Life would need to reduce total life-cycle costs by |$ 450,000 | |($6,000,000 Ã¢â¬â $5,550,000) | | |Check | | |Revenue |$7,000,000 | |Sale of land |400,000 | |Total life-cycle cost |(5,550,000) | |Life-cycle operating income |$1,850,000 | |Mark-up percentage = [pic]= 33? | | 12-35Ã (30 min. ) Airline pricing, considerations other than cost in pricing. 1. If the fare is $500, a. Air Eagle would expect to have 200 business and 100 pleasure travelers. b. Variable costs per passenger would be $65. c. Contribution margin per passenger = $500 Ã¢â¬â $65 = $435. If the fare is $2,100, a. Air Eagle w ould expect to have 180 business and 20 pleasure travelers. b. Variable costs per passenger would be $175. c. Contribution margin per passenger = $2,100 Ã¢â¬â $175 = $1,925. Contribution margin from business travelers at prices of $500 and $2,100, respectively, follow: At a price of $500: $435 ? 200 passengers = $ 87,000At a price of $2,100: $1,925 ? 180 passengers= $346,500 Air Eagle would maximize contribution margin and operating income by charging business travelers a fare of $2,100. Contribution margin from pleasure travelers at prices of $500 and $2,100, respectively, follow: At a price of $500: $435 ? 100 passengers= $43,500 At a price of $2,100: $1,925 ? 20 passengers= $38,500 Air Eagle would maximize contribution margin and operating income by charging pleasure travelers a fare of $500. Air Eagle would maximize contribution margin and operating income by a price differentiation strategy, where business travelers are charged $2,100 and pleasure travelers $500.In deciding between the alternative prices, all other costs such as fuel costs, allocated annual lease costs, allocated ground services costs, and allocated flight crew salaries are irrelevant. Why? Because these costs will not change whatever price Air Eagle chooses t